MinuteEarth

Check out the heroes who saved the ozone layer at https://futureoflife.org/future-of-life-award/
Lots of global problems seem intractable, but there’s a formula for success that we can follow.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Ozone layer: A thin layer of ozone concentrated in the Earth’s stratosphere roughly 10 kilometers above that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation before it hits the Earth’s surface.
Ultraviolet radiation: Invisible rays of energy that come from the sun that can be harmful to humans and other lifeforms.
Chlorofluorocarbons: Also known as CFCs, these long man-made molecules used to be widely used refrigerants and solvents before it was discovered that - when exposed to ultraviolet radiation - their chlorine atoms would break off and combine with ozone molecules.
Smallpox: A virus that killed more than half a billion humans before being eradicated in 1980.
Disease Surveillance: A practice by which disease progressions are closely monitored in order to minimize the harm caused by outbreaks.

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SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
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CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ochmann, Sophie, and Max Roser. “Smallpox.” Our World in Data, 2018, https://ourworldindata.org/smallpox. Data on Smallpox.
Henderson, D A. SMALLPOX - the DEATH of a DISEASE : The inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer. S.L., Prometheus, 2021, pp. 57–61.
CDC. “History of Smallpox.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 Feb. 2021, https://cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html.
Waxman, Olivia B. 2019. “Reagan Administration Officials at First Dismissed the Ozone Hole. Here’s What Changed.” Time. April 9, 2019. https://time.com/5564651/reagan-ozone-hole/
Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland. 2007. “The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (12): 4814–19. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610328104.
US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. n.d. “Susan Solomon: Pioneering Atmospheric Scientist.” Celebrating200years.noaa.gov. Accessed July 20, 2021. https://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/historymakers/solomon/welcome.html.
Solomon, Susan. 2019. “The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole.” Nature 575 (7781): 46–47. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-02837-5
Pyle, John, and Neil Harris. 2013. “Joe Farman (1930–2013).” Nature 498 (7455): 435–35. https://doi.org/10.1038/498435a.
Foege, William H, and Milbank Memorial Fund. House on Fire : The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox. Berkeley, University Of California Press, 2012
Future of Life Institute. “Future of Life Award 2020: Saving 200,000,000 Lives by Eradicating Smallpox.” Future of Life Institute, Lucas Perry, 11 Dec. 2020, https://futureoflife.org/the-future-of-life-podcast/.

Direct download: How_To_Solve_Every_Global_Crisis.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:53pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
People all around the world tend to represent time via space, but there’s no consensus on which way time goes.

PREORDER OUR FIRST BOOK (out October 12th):

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Indigo (Canada)- http://bit.ly/MinuteearthExplains

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Bergen, B. K. & Lau, T. T. C. (2012) Writing direction affects how people map space onto time. Frontiers in Psychology 3:109. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00109/full

Boroditsky, L. (2000). Metaphoric Structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75(1), 1-28. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027799000736

Casasanto, D. & Boroditsky, L. (2008). Time in the mind: Using space to think about time. Cognition 106 (2):579-593 http://lera.ucsd.edu/papers/duration-cognition-2008.pdf

Majid, A., Gaby, A., & Boroditsky, L. (2013). Time in terms of space. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 554. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00554/full

Núñez, R., Cooperrider, K., Doan, D., & Wassmann, J. (2012). Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 124(1), 25– 35. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027712000571

Direct download: Where_is_Tomorrow.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:52pm EDT

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Because smaller animals have to eat more relative to their bodyweight, Tolkein’s hobbits need to eat a lot - not for comfort, but for survival.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Metabolism: The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Square-cube Law: A mathematical principle which describes the relationship between the volume and the surface area as a shape's size increases or decreases.
Kleiber’s Law: The observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal's metabolic rate scales to the 3⁄4 power of the animal's mass.
Calorie: Unit of energy. One food calorie equals 1 kilocalorie.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
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- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke | Script Writer
David Goldenberg | Script Editor, Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Kleiber, M. (1947). BODY SIZE AND METABOLIC RATE. Physiological Reviews, 27(4), 511–541. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511.

Dawson, N. (1967). The Surface-Area/Body-Weight Relationship in Mice. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(3), 687. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1071/bi9670687.

How Much Does an Elephant Weigh? (2019, September 26). Wonderopolis.org. Retrieved from: https://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-much-does-an-elephant-weigh

Thommen, Albert, et al. “Body Size-Dependent Energy Storage Causes Kleiber’s Law Scaling of the Metabolic Rate in Planarians.” (2019) ELife, eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 4 Jan. 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.elifesciences.org/articles/38187.

West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A General Model for the Origin of Allometric Scaling Laws in Biology. Science, 276(5309), 122–126. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5309.122.

Direct download: Why_Do_Hobbits_Need_SEVEN_Meals.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:11pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at http://www.curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
Sharks wouldn’t be known for their fierce teeth today if it weren’t for their ancient scales.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Dermal denticles: also called placoid scales, they’re the most primitive form of fish scales that are structurally similar to teeth and are today found only in sharks, rays, and chimaeras.
Outside-in theory: The strongest theory for the evolution of teeth, which are thought to have evolved from dermal denticle scales.
Ostracoderms: Extinct armored jawless fish that lived in the Paleozoic Era
Thelodonts: Extinct jawless fish that had individual scales as opposed to plates of armor
Placoderms: Now extinct, they were some of the first jawed fish and lived from the Silurian through the Devonian era.

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CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Kate Yoshida | Co-Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Martin Rücklin. "The ins and outs of the evolutionary origin of teeth." Evolution & development 18.1 (2016): 19-30. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ede.12099

Fraser, Gareth J., et al. "The odontode explosion: the origin of tooth‐like structures in vertebrates." Bioessays 32.9 (2010): 808-817. https://authors.library.caltech.edu/20188/3/nihms266189.pdf

Huysseune, Ann, Jean‐Yves Sire, and P. Eckhard Witten. "Evolutionary and developmental origins of the vertebrate dentition." Journal of Anatomy 214.4 (2009): 465-476. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2736119/

Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Eating Was Tough For Early Tetrapods." (2013): 390-391. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6118/390.full

Direct download: Why_Sharks_Are_Covered_In_Teeth.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:11pm EDT

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While the rest of the world’s megafauna are still foundering in the anthropocene era, these two big animals have used little animal strategies to bounce back. Way back.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Megafauna: Large animals, usually over 45 Kgs.
- Anthropocene era: A proposed time period delineated the age during which human activity has been the dominant force on the environment and the climate.
- Holocene Extinction: An ongoing extinction event of species due to human activity.
- Fertility Rate: The number of babies an organism has in its lifetime.
- Omnivory: The ability to eat food from two different trophic levels.
- Bubble-Net Feeding: A cooperative hunting technique where groups of whales use bubbles to disorient fish prey.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
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Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Vivitskaia, J D, Tulloch, Éva E Plagányi, Richard Matear, Christopher J Brown, Anthony J Richardson. (2017) Ecosystem modelling to quantify the impact of historical whaling on Southern Hemisphere baleen whales. Fish and Fisheries, 19:1 (117-137). Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12241

Kosma Madison M., Werth Alexander J., Szabo Andrew R. and Straley Janice M. (2019). Pectoral herding: an innovative tactic for humpback whale foraging. Royal Society Open Science. 6:10. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.191104

Ritchie, Hannah, Roser, Max. "Biodiversity". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/biodiversity

Pershing, A. J., Christensen, L. B., Record, N. R., Sherwood, G. D., & Stetson, P. B. (2010). The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: why bigger was better. PloS One, 5(8), e12444. Retrieved from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012444

Ripple, William J., Newsome, Thomas M., Wolf, Christopher, Dirzo, Rodolfo, Everatt, Kristoffer, T.Galetti, Mauro, Hayward, Matt W.Kerley, Graham I. H.Levi, Taal, Lindsey, Peter A, Macdonald, David W. Malhi, Yadvinder, Painter, Luke E.Sandom, Christopher J., Terborgh, JohnVan, Valkenburgh, Blaire. (2015) Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores. Science Advances. 1:3 Retrieved from: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/4/e1400103/tab-pdf

Meynecke, Olaf. 2021. Personal communication. Center for Coastal and Marine Management, Griffith University. https://www.dr-olaf.com/

Pallin Logan J., Baker C. Scott, Steel Debbie, Kellar Nicholas M., Robbins Jooke, Johnston David W., Nowacek Doug P., Read Andrew J. and Friedlaender Ari S. (2018) High pregnancy rates in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) around the Western Antarctic Peninsula, evidence of a rapidly growing population. Royal Society Open Science. 5:5. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180017

Holland, Jennifer. (2015) Black Bears Are Rebounding - What Does That Mean For People? National Geographic. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/150626-black-bears-animals-science-nation-conservation?loggedin=true

Ramona L. Gonzales, Alejandra V. Mendoza, Brendan M. Himelright, Jenna M. Moore, Thomas J. Spady (2013) American black bear mating behavior and chemosensation of estrus. Ursus, 24(2), 139-147. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/ursus/volume-24/issue-2/URSUS-D-12-00026.1/American-black-bear-mating-behavior-and-chemosensation-of-estrus/10.2192/URSUS-D-12-00026.1.short

Himelright, B. M., Moore, J. M., Gonzales, R. L., Mendoza, A. V., Dye, P. S., Schuett, R. J., Durrant, B. S., Read, B. A., & Spady, T. J. (2014). Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrous in American black bears (Ursus americanus). Conservation physiology, 2(1), Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cou051

Direct download: How_A_Whale_And_A_Bear_Beat_The_System.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:10pm EDT

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It’s not just how much you take in; it’s how fast your body can purge it.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Poison: A substance that is capable of causing illness or death when introduced or absorbed.
Overdose: A dangerously large dose of a substance.
Biotransformation: The process by which foreign chemicals are transformed by the body into less toxic substances.
Polydipsia: The medical term for feelings of extreme thirst that can lead to hyponatremia.
Hyponatremia: Abnormally low sodium in the blood often caused by excessive water consumption.
Lethal Concentration - The concentration a substance needs to be in the bloodstream to kill 50% of subjects.
Metabolism - the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Toxicity - the quality of being toxic or poisonous.
Excretion - the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) | Script Writer
David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
ATSDR. (2006). Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp8-c3.pdf

Cyanide Fact. (2013). Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/publications/cyanide-fact-sheet

Lead (Pb) Toxicity: What is the Biological Fate of Lead in the Body? | Environmental Medicine | ATSDR. (2021, February 9). Cdc.gov. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/leadtoxicity/biologic_fate.html

Lethal Doses of Water, Caffeine and Alcohol. (2014, July 27). Compound Interest. https://www.compoundchem.com/2014/07/27/lethaldoses/

Radcliffe, S. (2017, May 25). How You Can Die From a Caffeine Overdose. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/how-you-can-die-from-caffeine#Caffeine-overdose-is-rare

Shalat, S. (2016, February 4). Toxic lead can stay in the body for years after exposure. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/toxic-lead-can-stay-in-the-body-for-years-after-exposure-53607

Shenvi, C. (2016, February 16). Hydroxocobalamin: Turning Cyanide into Vitamin B12 | Emergency Physicians Monthly. Emergency Physicians Monthly | EPM. https://epmonthly.com/article/hydroxocobalamin-turning-cyanide-into-vitamin-b12/

Direct download: Why_Poison_Sometimes_Doesnt_Kill_You.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:44pm EDT

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Optimal foraging theory means that turning down food is sometimes more efficient than eating it - but even then, what’s “wasted” doesn’t necessarily go to waste.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Foraging: to search widely for food.
Optimal Foraging Theory: A behavioral model that describes how an animal should behave when searching for food.
Surplus Killing: a common behavior exhibited by predators, in which they kill more prey than they can immediately eat and then cache or abandon the remainder.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke | Script Writer
Kate Yoshida | Script Editor
Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Alcock, J. (2013). Animal behavior : an evolutionary approach. Sinauer, Cop.

Hopkins, J. B. (2013). Use of genetics to investigate socially learned foraging behavior in free-ranging black bears. Journal of Mammalogy, 94(6), 1214–1222. https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-009.1

Klinka, D. R., & Reimchen, T. E. (2009). Darkness, Twilight, and Daylight Foraging Success of Bears (Ursus americanus) on Salmon in Coastal British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(1), 144–149. https://doi.org/10.1644/07-mamm-a-200.1

Lincoln, A. E., & Quinn, T. P. (2018). Optimal foraging or surplus killing: selective consumption and discarding of salmon by brown bears. Behavioral Ecology, 30(1), 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ary139

Lounibos, L. P., Makhni, S., Alto, B. W., & Kesavaraju, B. (2008). Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey. Journal of Insect Behavior, 21(2), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10905-007-9103-2

Maupin, J. L. (2001). Superfluous killing in spiders: a consequence of adaptation to food-limited environments? Behavioral Ecology, 12(5), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/12.5.569

McMahon, B. F., & Evans, R. M. (1992). Foraging Strategies of American White Pelicans. Behaviour, 120(1-2), 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853992x00219

Direct download: Why_These_Bears_Waste_Food.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:46pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
Fevers are one of our best weapons against infections, but they don't work like you might think.

We'd like to give a big thank you to Sharon Evans from the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center for sharing her expertise for this video!

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Fever: a rise in body temperature, usually caused by infection
Heat shock proteins (HSP): a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions
Neutrophils: white blood cells that play an important role in inflammation and are early responders to pathogens.
T cells: major components of the adaptive immune system whose roles include regulating the immune response to pathogens.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Appenheimer, M.M. & Evans, S.S. (2018) Temperature and adaptive immunity. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 156: 397–415. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B978-0-444-63912-7.00024-2

Casadevall, A. (2016) Thermal Restriction as an Antimicrobial Function of Fever. PLoS Pathog 12(5): e1005577. https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005577

ChangDong L. et al. (2019). Fever Promotes T Lymphocyte Trafficking via a Thermal Sensory Pathway Involving Heat Shock Protein 90 and α4 Integrins. Immunity 50(1):137-151. https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(18)30495-3

Evans, S.S. et al. (2015) Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat. Nature Reviews Immunology 15(6): 335+. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786079/

Hasday, J.D., Thompson, C., Singh, I.S. (2014) Fever, immunity, and molecular adaptations. Comprehensive Physiology 4:109–48. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cphy.c130019

Hasday, J.D. & Singh, I.S. (2000) Fever and the heat shock response: distinct, partially overlapping processes. Cell Stress Chaperones 5:471–480. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC312879/

Javid, B., MacAry, P.A. & Lehner, P.J. (2007) Structure and function: heat shock proteins and adaptive immunity. Journal of Immunology 179:2035–2040. https://www.jimmunol.org/content/179/4/2035

Mackowiak, P. A.: Direct effects of hyperthermia on pathogenic microorganisms: teleological implications with regard to fever. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1981, 3: 508–518. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/3/3/508/307776

Direct download: How_Fevers_REALLY_Work.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:54pm EDT

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By analyzing survivorship curves over the centuries, we can learn what’s changed about how - and when - humans die.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life Expectancy At Birth: The average number of years a newborn in a particular group could expect to live.
Mortality Rate: The frequency of occurrence of death within a particular group during a particular time period.
Life Table: A table that shows the number of individuals within a group that survive from one year to the next until they are all dead.
Survivorship Curve: A plot of the data in a particular life table that shows the years on the x-axis and the number or percent of survivors on the y-axis.
Infant Mortality: The death of an infant before his or her first birthday.

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Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Medina, L. et al. (2020). Living Longer: Historical and Projected Life Expectancy in the United States, 1960 to 2060. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1145.pdf

Hacker J. D. (2010). Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790-1900. Historical methods, 43(2), 45–79. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885717/

United Nations. 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wpp2019/Download/Standard/Mortality/.

Szmigiera, M. (2021). Projected global infant mortality rate 1990-2100. Statista. Retrieved from : https://www.statista.com/statistics/673449/projected-global-infant-mortality-rate/

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1910). United States Life Tables: Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life1890-1910.pdf

US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. (1964). Life Tables. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life59-61_1_1acc.pdf

Arias, E. (2014). National Vital Statistics Reports. United States Life Tables, 2010. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr63/nvsr63_07.pdf

Direct download: How_Long_Did_People_Use_To_Live.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:24pm EDT

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It turns out that defining what is and isn't a “tree” is way harder than it seems.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Wood: A bunch of cellulose fibers intertwined with lignin usually found in the trunk of a tree.
Trunk: A wooden stem that thickens over time.
Bonsai: An ornamental tree or shrub that is artificially prevented from reaching its normal size.
Shrub: A woody plant that is smaller than a tree.
Gymnosperm: A group of plants, including conifers, that have naked seeds.
Angiosperm: A group of plants, including lots of other “trees” that have enclosed seeds.
Monocots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with a single embryonic leaf that includes palm trees.
Dicots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with two embryonic leaves that includes oak trees.

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OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Georg Miehe, Sabine Miehe, Jonas Vogel, Sonam Co, Duo La. (2007) "Highest Treeline in the Northern Hemisphere Found in Southern Tibet," Mountain Research and Development, 27(2), 169-173. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/mountain-research-and-development/volume-27/issue-2/mrd.0792/Highest-Treeline-in-the-Northern-Hemisphere-Found-in-Southern-Tibet/10.1659/mrd.0792.full#i0276-4741-27-2-169-b33

Ellenberg, H., Mueller-Dombois, D. (1965). A key to Raunkiaer plant life forms with revised subdivisions. Retrieved from: https://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?pid=bgi-002%3A1965%3A37%3A%3A130

Alcott, D. (2019). Are palm trees really trees? That’s Life Science. Retrieved from: http://thatslifesci.com/2019-11-25-Are-palm-trees-really-trees-dalcott/

David B. Neale, Pedro J. Martínez-García, Amanda R. De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei. (2017). “Novel Insights into Tree Biology and Genome Evolution as Revealed Through Genomics.” Annual Review of Plant Biology 68:1, 457-483. Retrieved from: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042916-041049?journalCode=arplant

Ehrenberg, Rachel. (2018). “What Makes A Tree A Tree?” Knowable Magazine. Retrieved from: https://knowablemagazine.org/article/living-world/2018/what-makes-tree-tree#:~:text=A%20banana%20tree%27s%20trunk%20doesn,cells%20typical%20of%20most%20trees

Christophe Plomion, Grégoire Leprovost, Alexia Stokes. (2001). “Wood Formation in Trees”. Plant Physiology, Volume 127, 4: 1513–1523. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.010816

Ray, Georgia (2021). "There’s no such thing as a tree (phylogenetically)". Eukaryote Writes Blog. Retrieved from: https://eukaryotewritesblog.com/2021/05/02/theres-no-such-thing-as-a-tree/

Direct download: We_dont_know_what_a_tree_is_and_this_video_wont_tell_you.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 6:27pm EDT

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We might have a strong hand because having a weak hand is actually useful.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Handedness: the tendency to use one hand more than the other for specific tasks

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Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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OUR STAFF
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David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
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REFERENCES
**************
Chédotal A and LJ Richards. 2010. Wiring the brain: the biology of neuronal guidance. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 Jun; 2(6): a001917. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001917

Magat M and C Brown. 2009. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:4155-4162

Forrester GS, WD Hopkins, K Hudry, A Lindell (eds). 2018. Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases. Progress in Brain Research. Book series. Volume 238, Pages 2-433

Corballis MC (2014) Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies. PLoS Biol 12(1): e1001767. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001767

Direct download: Why_Its_Good_To_Have_A_Weak_Hand.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:30pm EDT

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The global pandemic led to a drop in outdoor air pollution, but it also led to an increase in indoor air pollution - and our exposure to it.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Particulate matter: often abbreviated PM, it is the sum of all the tiny particles and drops of liquid suspended in the air including soil, soot, dust, metals, and acids like nitrates.
Air quality: a measurement of how polluted the air is, judged by the level of known pollutants in the air like NO2 and particulate matter like soot.
Ozonolysis: an organic chemical reaction wherein ozone cleaves a carbon-carbon bond in unsaturated compounds.

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Arcadi i Garcia Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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OUR STAFF
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REFERENCES
**************
Anthes, Emily. "Coronavirus lockdowns may raise exposure to indoor air pollution." Scientific American 1 (2020).
Chen, Yilin, et al. "Environmental Inequality Deepened During the COVID-19 in the Developing World." Environmental Science & Technology (2020).
Eldeirawi, Kamal, et al. "Increased disinfectant use among adults with asthma in the era of COVID-19." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 9.3 (2021): 1378-1380.
González-Martín, Javier, et al. "A state-of-the-art review on indoor air pollution and strategies for indoor air pollution control." Chemosphere (2020): 128376.
Hoddinott, K. B., and A. P. Lee. "The use of environmental risk assessment methodologies for an indoor air quality investigation." Chemosphere 41.1-2 (2000): 77-84.
Klepeis, Neil E., et al. "The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 11.3 (2001): 231-252.
Lewis, Dyani. "COVID-19 rarely spreads through surfaces. So why are we still deep cleaning." Nature 590.7844 (2021): 26-28.
Long, Christopher M., and Peter A. Valberg. "Indoor airborne particulate matter: Unregulated, but a major contributor to our everyday exposure." Nat. Resources & Env't 32 (2017): 8.
Megahed, Naglaa A., and Ehab M. Ghoneim. "Indoor Air Quality: Rethinking rules of building design strategies in post-pandemic architecture." Environmental Research (2020): 110471.
Nazaroff, William W., and Charles J. Weschler. "Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants." Atmospheric environment 38.18 (2004): 2841-2865.
Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C., Joseph G. Allen, and Paloma I. Beamer. "Another invisible enemy indoors: COVID-19, human health, the home, and United States indoor air policy." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 30.5 (2020): 773-775.
Patel, Sameer, et al. "Indoor particulate matter during HOMEChem: Concentrations, size distributions, and exposures." Environmental science & technology 54.12 (2020): 7107-7116.
Pluschke, Peter, and Hans Schleibinger. Indoor air pollution. Springer, 2018.
Smith, Kirk R., et al. "Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution." Annual review of public health 35 (2014): 185-206.
Sundell, Jan. "On the history of indoor air quality and health." Indoor air 14.s 7 (2004): 51-58.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold. "Indoor air pollution in California." California EPA (2005).
Torkmahalleh, Mehdi Amouei, et al. "Review of factors impacting emission/concentration of cooking generated particulate matter." Science of the Total Environment 586 (2017): 1046-1056.
Tran, Vinh Van, Duckshin Park, and Young-Chul Lee. "Indoor air pollution, related human diseases, and recent trends in the control and improvement of indoor air quality." Internatio
Venter, Zander S., et al. "COVID-19 lockdowns cause global air pollution declines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117.32 (2020): 18984-18990.

Direct download: An_Unexpected_Consequence_of_COVID.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:30pm EDT

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Because there are so many different types of penises among our evolutionary relatives, we didn’t know until a recent discovery whether they all had the same origin.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Amniote: Vertebrates whose embryos are enclosed in a thin sac.
- Cloaca: A posterior orifice used for excretion and reproduction.
- Cloacal Kiss: A method that penisless amniotes use to mate, which involves males and females momentarily pressing their cloacae together.
- Tuatara: Reptiles endemic to New Zealand that are the only surviving members of their ancient amniote group.
- Hemipenis: One of the paired copulatory organs of lizards and snakes.
- Bmp4: A protein that, when present, stifles the growth of penises in chick embryos.
- Convergent Evolution: The independent evolution of similar features in different species.

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David Goldenberg | Script Editor & Narrator
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Ever Salazar | Director
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
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Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida


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REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Dendy, Arthur. 1899. “Memoirs: Outlines of the Development of the Tuatara, Sphenodon (Hatteria) punctatus.” Journal of Cell Science s2-42: 1–87.

Cree, Alison. 2014. Tuatara: Biology and Conservation of a Venerable Survivor. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Gans, Carl, James C. Gillingham, and David Lang Clark. 1984. “Courtship, Mating and Male Combat in Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus.” Journal of Herpetology 18 (2): 194–97. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2307/1563749.

Sanger, Thomas J., Marissa L. Gredler, and Martin J. Cohn. 2015. “Resurrecting Embryos of the Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus, to Resolve Vertebrate Phallus Evolution.” Biology Letters 11 (10): pii: 20150694. REtreieved from: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0694.

Herrera, Ana María, Simone G. Shuster, Claire L. Perriton, and Martin J. Cohn. 2013. “Developmental Basis of Phallus Reduction During Bird Evolution.” Current Biology 23 (12): 1065–74. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.062.

Brennan, Patricia L. R. 2016a. “Evolution: One Penis After All.” Current Biology 26: R29–R31. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.024.

Willingham, Emily. 2020. Fallacy: Life Lessons from the Animal Penis. Avery. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Phallacy-Life-Lessons-Animal-Penis/dp/0593087178

Direct download: The_Mystery_Of_The_Missing_Penis.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 6:40pm EDT

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Humans are the only animals known to faint due to triggers like shock, fear, or pain; this is due to a combination of our massive brains and upright stance.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
"Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies animals (including humans) to either resist forcibly or escape
Fainting: loss of consciousness caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to the brain, also known as “syncope.”
Vasovagal syncope: a type of fainting that happens when your body overreacts to an emotional trigger like being in danger, seeing blood, or even just hearing some shocking news.
Tonic immobility: an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that causes some animals to relax their muscles and “freeze” in place, sometimes causing them to fall over
Jump scare: a technique often used in horror films meant to scare the audience with a sudden change on screen, usually paired with a loud sound

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Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Piano Jump Scare Stinger by TheSoundFXGuy_YT of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/TheSoundFXGuy_YT/sounds/534218/
Licensed under CC BY 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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REFERENCES
**************
Alboni, Paolo, and Marco Alboni. "Origin and Evolution of the Vasovagal Reflex." Vasovagal Syncope. Springer, Cham, 2015. 3-17.

Alboni, P., Alboni, M. “Typical vasovagal syncope as a “defense mechanism” for the heart by contrasting sympathetic overactivity.” Clin Auton Res 27, 253–261 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-017-0446-2

Blanc, Jean-Jacques, Paolo Alboni, and David G. Benditt. "Vasovagal syncope in humans and protective reactions in animals." Ep Europace 17.3 (2015): 345-349.

Bracha, H., Bienvenu, O. & Person, D. “Evolution and fear-fainting.” Clin Auton Res 16, 299 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-006-0359-y

Buckey JC, Peshock RM, Blomqvist CG. “Deep venous contribution to hydrostatic blood volume change in the human leg.” Am J Cardiol. 1988 Sep 1;62(7):449-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(88)90976-9.

Furst, Branko. "The Effect of Gravity and Upright Posture on Circulation." The Heart and Circulation. Springer, Cham, 2020. 319-341.

Kozlowska K, Walker P, McLean L, Carrive P. “Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management.” Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):263-87. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000065.

Roelofs, Karin. "Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 372.1718 (2017): 20160206.

Sheldon, Robert S., and Roopinder K. Sandhu. "The search for the genes of vasovagal syncope." Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine 6 (2019): 175.

Sun, Benjamin C., Jennifer A. Emond, and Carlos A. Camargo Jr. "Direct medical costs of syncope-related hospitalizations in the United States." The American journal of cardiology 95.5 (2005): 668-671.

van Dijk JG. “Fainting in animals.” Clin Auton Res. 2003 Aug;13(4):247-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-003-0099-1.

Direct download: Why_We_Faint_When_Other_Animals_Dont.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:30pm EDT

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All over the world, giant wave breaks appear because of underwater geology that supercharges their wave energy.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Amplitude - The distance between the crest and trough of a wave.
Bathymetry - The measurement of depth of water in oceans, seas, or lakes.
Nazaré Canyon - An undersea canyon just off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It is the largest submarine canyon in Europe, reaching depths of about 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) deep and a length of about 230 kilometers (140 mi).
Plunging Breaker - Occurs when there are rapid depth changes. The crest of the wave becomes very steep, and the rear of the wave violently plunges over the front.
Reef Break - A location where waves break over a reef, often amplifying them.
Spilling Breaker - Occurs when the seafloor slopes gradually. As the wave becomes unstable, energy is dissipated by water spilling over the crest of the wave.
Swell - a slow, regular movement of the sea in rolling waves that do not break.
Wave period - The time between waves.

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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Babanin, A. V., Rogers, W. E., de Camargo, R., Doble, M., Durrant, T., Filchuk, K., Ewans, K., Hemer, M., Janssen, T., Kelly-Gerreyn, B., Machutchon, K., McComb, P., Qiao, F., Schulz, E., Skvortsov, A., Thomson, J., Vichi, M., Violante-Carvalho, N., Wang, D., & Waseda, T. (2019). Waves and Swells in High Wind and Extreme Fetches, Measurements in the Southern Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00361

Editor At Surfertoday.com. (2013, November 5). The canyon that makes waves. Surfertoday; SurferToday.com | The Ultimate Surfing News Website. Retrieved from: https://www.surfertoday.com/surfing/the-canyon-that-makes-waves

Griffiths, L. S., & Porter, R. (2012). Focusing of surface waves by variable bathymetry. Applied Ocean Research, 34, 150–163. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2011.08.004

Inman, D. (2021). Living with Coastal Change - Coastal Basics - Wave Refraction Model - Jaws, Hawaii. Ucsd.edu. Retrieved from: http://coastalchange.ucsd.edu/st3_basics/p_waverefrac.html#bathymetric_map

Keating, S. (2020, January 6). The story of a wave: from wind-blown ripples to breaking on the beach. The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/the-story-of-a-wave-from-wind-blown-ripples-to-breaking-on-the-beach-128458

Pedro Proença Cunha, & Margarida, M. (2015, February). The Nazaré coast, the submarine canyon and the giant waves - a synthesis. ResearchGate; Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275522569_The_Nazare_coast_the_submarine_canyon_and_the_giant_waves_-_a_synthesis

Pinet, P. R. (2009). Invitation to oceanography (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
The generation and propagation of ocean waves and swell. I. Wave periods and velocities | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. (2017). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.1948.0005

Warner, S. (2020). What makes the world’s biggest surfable waves? The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/what-makes-the-worlds-biggest-surfable-waves-150600

Warner, S. (2021). Department of Environmental Studies, Brandeis University. Personal Communication. Homepage: https://www.brandeis.edu/facultyguide/person.html?emplid=6cf46554ff6936fa51d9e22d0414e63798a5c4a1

Direct download: How_Do_Some_Waves_Get_SO_Big.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:40pm EDT

To learn more about restoration action - and get involved - visit RESTOR from the Crowther Lab at https://restor.eco.
Superheroes - imaginary and real - aren't all that super on their own...here's why.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
carbon sequestration: the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide
productivity: the rate of generation of biomass (and therefore carbon storage) in an ecosystem

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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer and Narrator
David Goldenberg | Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Bar-On, Y. M., Phillips, R., & Milo, R. (2018). The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201711842. http://www.pnas.org/content/115/25/6506.

Liang J et al. (2016). Positive biodiversity–productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6309/aaf8957

Liu X et al. 2018 Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests. Proc. R. Soc. B
285: 20181240. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.1240

Mistry J, Bilbao BA, Berardi A. (2016). Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20150174.
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2015.0174

Oehri J. et al (2020). Terrestrial land-cover type richness is positively linked to landscape-level functioning. Nature Communications 11 (1). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-14002-7

Schmitz O.J. et al. Animals and the zoogeochemistry of the carbon cycle. Science. 2018; 362. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6419/eaar3213/

Sobral, M. et al. (2017). Mammal diversity influences the carbon cycle through trophic interactions in the Amazon. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1670–1676. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0334-0

Soto-Navarro C, et al. (2020). Mapping co-benefits for carbon storage and biodiversity to inform conservation policy and action. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 375: 20190128. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2019.0128

Direct download: The_Ecology_of_Superheroes.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:10pm EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2
You might already know that proteins are a fundamental part of your diet, but they're much more than that.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Amino acids: are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid.
- Proteins: are macromolecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Most proteins fold into unique 3D structures. The shape into which a protein naturally folds is known as its native conformation.
- Alpha helix (α-helix): is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in which every backbone N−H group hydrogen bonds to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid located four residues earlier along the protein sequence.
- Beta sheet (β-sheet): is a common motif of the regular protein secondary structure and consists of beta strands (β-strands) connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet.
- Ribbon diagrams: are 3D schematic representations of protein structure that shows the overall path and organization of the protein backbone in 3D. Ribbon diagrams are generated by interpolating a smooth curve through the polypeptide backbone. α-helices are shown as coiled ribbons or thick tubes, β-strands as arrows, and non-repetitive coils or loops as lines or thin tubes.

CREDITS
*********
Ever Salazar | Co-Writer, Narrator, Illustrator and Director
David Wych | Co-writer and Consultant
Aldo de Vos, Know Art | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius • David Goldenberg
Julián Gustavo Gómez • Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich
Henry Reich • Peter Reich • Leonardo Souza
Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

OTHER CREDITS & REFERENCES
**********************************
Goodsell, David (2006). Visual Methods from Atoms to Cells. Structure 13, Issue 3:347-354. doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.01.012

Protein 3D images created using Mol* (https://molstar.org/) and structure data from RCSB PDB (https://www.rcsb.org/)

Mol* (D. Sehnal, A.S. Rose, J. Kovca, S.K. Burley, S. Velankar (2018) Mol*: Towards a common library and tools for web molecular graphics MolVA/EuroVis Proceedings. doi:10.2312/molva.20181103)

Villin folding trajectory by Stefan Doerr - https://figshare.com/authors/Stefan_Doerr/748688

Clathrin Structure (PDB ID: 3IYV)
Fotin, A., et al (2004). Molecular model for a complete clathrin lattice from electron cryomicroscopy. Nature 432: 573-579. doi:10.1038/nature03079

Immunoglobulin Structure (PDB IDs: 1IGT & 1IGY)
Harris, L.J., et al (1998). Crystallographic structure of an intact IgG1 monoclonal antibody. J Mol Biol 275: 861-872. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.1508

ATP Synthase Structure (PDB IDs: 5ARE, 5ARI & 5FIL)
Zhou, A., et al (2015). Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM. ELife, 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.10180

RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month by David S. Goodsell (The Scripps Research Institute and the RCSB PDB) - https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/72

Photosystem II (PDB ID: 5XNL)
Su, X., et al (2017). Structure and assembly mechanism of plant C2S2M2-type PSII-LHCII supercomplex. Science 357: 815-820. doi:10.1126/science.aan0327

Ribonuclease (PDB ID: 2AAS)
Santoro, J., et al (1993). High-resolution three-dimensional structure of ribonuclease A in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Mol Biol 229: 722-734. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1075

Myosin (PDB ID: 1B7T)
Houdusse, A., et al (1999). Atomic structure of scallop myosin subfragment S1 complexed with MgADP: a novel conformation of the myosin head. Cell 97: 459-470. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80756-4

Direct download: Proteins_Explained.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:07pm EDT

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The body can get a whole lot colder - but not a whole lot hotter - before we die. Why is that?

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Hyperthermia: a medical condition where an individual's body temperature is elevated beyond normal
Hypothermia: a medical doncition that occurs when an individual's body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different
Denaturation: the alteration of a protein shape through some form of external stress (for example, heat), so that it can no longer carry out its cellular function

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
A great article from Outside on hyperthermia: https://www.outsideonline.com/2398105/heat-stroke-signs-symptoms
Learn more about the woman who survived the lowest known body temp: https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-woman-who-survived-the-lowest-body-temperature-ever

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176


REFERENCES
**************
Lepock JR (2004). Role of nuclear protein denaturation and aggregation
in thermal radiosensitization, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 20:2, 115-130, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02656730310001637334

Leuenberger, P, Ganscha S, Kahraman A, Cappelletti V, PJ Boersema, Mering Cv, Claassen M, Picotti P (2017). Cell-wide analysis of protein thermal unfolding reveals determinants of thermostability
Science, 355: eaai7825. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6327/eaai7825

Roti Roti J (2008) Cellular responses to hyperthermia (40–46 degrees C): cell killing and molecular events. International Journal of Hyperthermia 24(1): 3–15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02656730701769841

Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA (2011). Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress. Comprehensive Physiology 1: 1883-1928. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cphy.c100082

Slovis CM, Anderson GF, Casolaro A (1982). Survival in a heat stroke victim with a core temperature in excess of 46.5 C. Annals of Emergency Medicine 11(5):269-271. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(82)80099-1

Direct download: Which_Will_Kill_You_First.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 7:56pm EDT

Watch the music video for "The Idea" off the album Music For Scientists: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUyT94aGmbc
Null results often get a bad rap, sometimes characterized as a study "finding nothing," but there's a lot we can learn from studies whose results fail to support their hypotheses.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Null result: a result in a scientific study that doesn’t support the hypothesis
Premature birth: also known as preterm birth, is a birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy
XENON1T: a highly sensitive experiment to search for direct interactions of dark matter particles. It’s located deep under Italy’s Gran Sasso mountain at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

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CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Aldo de Vos (Know Art) | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
The importance of no evidence. Nat Hum Behav 3, 197 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0569-7

Jena, A. B. (2017, November 10). 'Null' research findings aren't empty of Meaning. Let's publish them. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://www.statnews.com/2017/11/10/null-research-findings/

Maloni, Judith A. “Lack of evidence for prescription of antepartum bed rest.” Expert review of obstetrics & gynecology vol. 6,4 (2011): 385-393. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226811/

Matosin N, Frank E, Engel M, Lum JS, Newell KA. Negativity towards negative results: a discussion of the disconnect between scientific worth and scientific culture. Dis Model Mech. 2014 Feb;7(2):171-3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24713271/

Miller-Halegoua, Suzanne M. “Why null results do not mean no results: negative findings have implications for policy, practice, and research.” Translational behavioral medicine vol. 7,2 (2017): 137. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526820/

Mlinarić, Ana, Martina Horvat, and Vesna Šupak Smolčić. "Dealing with the positive publication bias: Why you should really publish your negative results." Biochemia medica 27.3 (2017): 447-452. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696751/

W David Crews, Jr, David W Harrison, James W Wright, A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 87, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 872–880, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.4.872

Zhao, L. (2017, December 29). When null results produce important science. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/when-null-results-produce-important-science/

Direct download: Why_Nothing_Matters_in_Science.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:06pm EDT

Go to https://bit.ly/noom_minuteearth and take your free 30-second quiz! Thank you #noom for sponsoring today’s video!
In order to truly understand differences among animal lifespans, we need to stop thinking about a specific number and start thinking about a distribution.

Check out the MinuteLabs interactive here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/survival-curves/

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life Expectancy At Birth: The average number of years a newborn in a particular group could expect to live.
Life Expectancy After Babyhood: The average number of years a member of a particular group could expect to live given that they had survived their first year.
Maximum Life Expectancy: The age at which the oldest known member of a particular group died.
Mortality Rate: The frequency of occurrence of death within a particular group during a particular time period.
Life Table: A table that shows the number of individuals within a group that survive from one year to the next until they are all dead.
Survivorship Curve: A plot of the data in a particular life table that shows the years on the x-axis and the number or percent of survivors on the y-axis.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Brown JS, Cunningham JJ, Gatenby RA. 2015 The multiple facets of Peto’s paradox: a life-history model for the evolution of cancer suppression. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370: 20140221. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0221

Barbieri, M. (2021). Personal Communication. UC Berkeley Department of Demography. Retrieved from: https://www.site.demog.berkeley.edu/barbieri-profile-page

United Nations. 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wpp/

Khan Academy. Life Tables, Survivorship Curves, and Age-Sex Structure. Retrieved from: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/ecology/population-ecology/a/life-tables-survivorship-age-sex-structure

Deevey, E. (1934). Life Tables for Natural Populations of Animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 22(4): 283-314. Retrieved from: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/395888

Direct download: The_Problem_With_Life_Expectancy.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:59pm EDT

To start comparing quotes and simplify insurance-buying check out Policygenius: http://policygenius.com/minuteearth. Thanks to Policygenius for sponsoring this video!
I found a really cool coronavirus illustration that led me to learn about viral attachment and entry.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Virus: a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. The study of viruses is known as virology.
Virion: a complete virus particle, and consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid.
Coronaviruses: a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal and include some cases of the common cold, SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2: the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Class I fusion proteins: resemble influenza virus hemagglutinin in their structure. Post-fusion, the active site has a trimer of α-helical coiled-coils

Proteins featured in this video:
- SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein
- Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) (Syndecan-4, especifically)
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
- Furin
- Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Coronaviruses 101: Focus on Molecular Virology by Britt Glaunsinger
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_bOhZd6ieM
Virology Lectures 2021: Attachment and entry by Vincent Racaniello
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7grtc4k1fhg
Building a visual consensus model of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle
https://animationlab.utah.edu/cova

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Ever Salazar | Script Writer, Narrator, Director, and Illustrator
Aldo de Vos (Know Art) | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
*****************
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion, 2020 - Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank; doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-026
http://pdb101.rcsb.org/sci-art/goodsell-gallery/sars-cov-2-fusion
Coronavirus outbreak (covid 19) explained through 3D Medical Animation - Video by scientificanimations.com
https://youtu.be/I-Yd-_XIWJg?t=208
Coronavirus, Explained: This Pandemic - Video by Netflix
https://www.netflix.com/title/81273378
How the Coronavirus Hijacks Your Cells - Video by Bloomberg Quicktake
https://youtu.be/4S3DXXtRZZg?t=128
Ink Drop/Drip in water - Video by CyberWebFX
https://www.youtube.com/c/CyberWebFX

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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Afzelius, B. (1994). Ultrastructure of human nasal epithelium during an episode of coronavirus infection. Virchows Archiv 424:295-300

Bestle, D., Heindl, M., Limburg, H., et all (2020). TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells. doi: 10.26508/lsa.202000786

Buijsers B., et al (2020) Increased Plasma Heparanase Activity in COVID-19 Patients. Front. Immunol. 11:575047. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.575047

Casalino, L., et al (2020). Beyond Shielding: The Roles of Glycans in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein
ACS Central Science 2020 6 (10), 1722-1734. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c01056

Clausen, T. M., et al (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection Depends on Cellular Heparan Sulfate and ACE2. Cell Volume 183, Issue 4, Pages 1043-1057.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.033

Elenius, K & Jalkanen, M. (1994). Function of the syndecans - a family of cell surface proteoglycans. Journal of Cell Science 107, 2975-2982

Shang, J. et al (2020). Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. PNAS May 26, 2020 117 (21) 11727-11734. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2003138117

Thomas, G. (2002). Furin at the cutting edge: From protein traffic to embryogenesis and disease. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002 October; 3(10): 753–766

Zhang, Q., et al (2020). Heparan sulfate assists SARS-CoV-2 in cell entry and can be targeted by approved drugs in vitro. Cell Discovery (2020) 6:80. doi: 10.1038/s41421-020-00222-5

Direct download: I_found_the_BEST_coronavirus_depiction__explanation.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:38pm EDT

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Different dogs look incredibly different - but that doesn't mean they are necessarily more diverse.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
phenotypic diversity - the range of different observable traits in a certain organism - for example, size, color, strength, and friendliness.
genetic diversity - the variation in the genetic information within and among individuals of a population or species
artificial selection (or selective breeding) - a process used by humans to develop new organisms with desirable characteristics

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176


REFERENCES
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Hedrick P. & Andersson L. (2011) Are dogs genetically special? Heredity 106: 712–713. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186234/

Lampi S. et al. (2020) Variation in breeding practices and geographic isolation drive subpopulation differentiation, contributing to the loss of genetic diversity within dog breed lineages. Canine Medicine and Genetics 7(1): 1-10. https://cgejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40575-020-00085-9

Lyons L. (2009) Recent advances in cat genetics. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Volume 4. https://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/recent-advances-in-cat-genetics

Menotti-Raymond M. et al. (2008) Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds. Genomics 91(1): 1-11. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888754307002078?via%3Dihub

Ostrander E. & Wayne R. (2005) The canine genome. Genome Research 15(12):1706-16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16339369/

Parker H. et al. (2004) Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science 304: 1160–4. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5674/1160

Plassais J. et al. (2019) Whole genome sequencing of canids reveals genomic regions under selection and variants influencing morphology. Nature Communications 10. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09373-w

Direct download: Dogs_vs_Cats_The_Diversity_Paradox.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:33am EDT

You can read Bill & Melinda Gates' 2021 letter at http://gatesnot.es/3opAPWK
Certain cognitive biases cause humans to make unsafe decisions in a pandemic, making a terrible disease even worse.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Pandemic: A disease outbreak that spreads across the world.
Exponential Growth: Growth that occurs when a value increases in proportion to its current value.
Exponential Growth Prediction Bias: An error in prediction that occurs when people underestimate how quickly numbers rise in an exponential system.
Optimism Bias: An error that occurs when people underestimate their personal likelihood of experiencing a negative event.
Hyperbolic Time Discounting Bias: An error that occurs when people choose smaller rewards in the present over larger awards in the future.
Reactance Psychology: An unpleasant motivational state that occurs when a freedom is threatened with elimination.
Individualism: The principle of being independent and self-reliant.
Collectivism: The principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it.
Disinformation: Deliberately false information designed to deceive.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ritwik Banerjee, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Priyama Majumdar (2021). Exponential-growth prediction bias and compliance with safety measures related to COVID-19. Social Science & Medicine, 268. Retrieved from:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953620306924?via%3Dihub.

IHME COVID-19 Forecasting Team., Reiner, R.C., Barber, R.M. et al. (2020). Modeling COVID-19 scenarios for the United States. Nat Med 27, 94–105. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1132-9.

Steindl, C., Jonas, E., Sittenthaler, S., Traut-Mattausch, E., & Greenberg, J. (2015). Understanding Psychological Reactance: New Developments and Findings. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 223(4), 205–214. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000222

Joris Lammers, Jan Crusius, and Anne Gast. (2020). Correcting misperceptions of exponential coronavirus growth increases support for social distancing.PNAS. 117:8. Retrieved from:
https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/117/28/16264.full.pdf.

Alan, M., Marco, M. (2020). How Your Brain Tricks You Into Taking Risks During the Pandemic. ProPublica. Retrieved from: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-your-brain-tricks-you-into-taking-risks-during-the-pandemic/.

Bottemanne Hugo, Morlaàs Orphée, Fossati Philippe, Schmidt Liane. (2020). Does the Coronavirus Epidemic Take Advantage of Human Optimism Bias? Frontiers in Psychology. 11. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02001/full

Soofi, M., Najafi, F. & Karami-Matin, B. (2020). Using Insights from Behavioral Economics to Mitigate the Spread of COVID-19. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 18, 345–350. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-020-00595-4

Direct download: Four_Reasons_Our_Brains_Suck_At_Pandemics.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:23pm EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2
Under the right conditions, wildfires can form clouds and generate firestorms, which last far longer than normal thunderstorms.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Pyrocumulonimbus cloud - a type of cumulonimbus cloud that forms that forms above wildfires and even volcanic eruptions, which can create thunderstorms
Virga - rain that evaporates before it hits the ground
Updraft - upward moving air in a thunderstorm
Downdraft - downward moving air in a thunderstorm

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Andreae, Meinrat O., et al. "Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon." science 303.5662 (2004): 1337-1342. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/303/5662/1337.abstract
Dowdy, Andrew J., Michael D. Fromm, and Nicholas McCarthy. "Pyrocumulonimbus lightning and fire ignition on Black Saturday in southeast Australia." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122.14 (2017): 7342-7354. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2017JD026577
Dowdy, Andrew J., et al. "Future changes in extreme weather and pyroconvection risk factors for Australian wildfires." Scientific reports 9.1 (2019): 1-11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-46362-x
McKeever, A. (2020, September 24). Fire clouds and fire tornadoes: How wildfires spawn extreme weather. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/pyrocumulonimbus-clouds-fire-tornadoes-how-wildfires-spawn-extreme-weather/
Ndalila, Mercy N., et al. "Evolution of a pyrocumulonimbus event associated with an extreme wildfire in Tasmania, Australia." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 20.5 (2020): 1497-1511. https://nhess.copernicus.org/articles/20/1497/2020/
Peterson, David A., et al. "Wildfire-driven thunderstorms cause a volcano-like stratospheric injection of smoke." NPJ climate and atmospheric science 1.1 (2018): 1-8. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41612-018-0039-3

Direct download: How_Wildfires_Generate_Relentless_Storms.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:30pm EDT

Check out Terra Mater’s new video about the Skywalker Gibbon - and subscribe - at https://youtube.com/terramaterofficial.
Most new species are discovered by amateurs because nowadays non-professionals are actually better suited to the requirements of new species “discovery.”

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Taxonomy: The branch of science concerned with classifying organisms
Taxonomic Impediment: The gaps in our taxonomic knowledge and the shortage of trained taxonomists and curators.
Amateur Taxonomist: Someone who classifies organisms but is not paid to do so.
Malacology: The study of mollusks, including snails and slugs.
Type Specimen: The specimen used to officially describe a new species.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Fontaine, B., van Achterberg, K., Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., Araujo, R., Asche, M., Aspöck, H., Aspöck, U., Audisio, P., Aukema, B., Bailly, N., Balsamo, M., Bank, R. A., Belfiore, C., Bogdanowicz, W., Boxshall, G., Burckhardt, D., Chylarecki, P., Deharveng, L., Dubois, A., Enghoff, H., … Bouchet, P. (2012). New species in the Old World: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy. PloS one, 7(5), e36881. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036881.

Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B. (2011). How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLOS Biology 9(8): e1001127. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127.

Drew, L. (2011). Are We Losing the Science of Taxonomy? As need grows, numbers and training are failing to keep up., BioScience, 61:12 (942–946). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.12.4.

Pearson, D., Hamilton, A., Erwin, T. (2011). Recovery Plan for the Endangered Taxonomy Profession. BioScience. 61:1 (58–63). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.1.11.

Agnarsson I, Kuntner M. (2007). Taxonomy in a changing world: seeking solutions for a science in crisis. Syst Biol.56(3):531-9. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17562477/.

Warren, R. (2019). The New Publish or Perish: Requirements for Jobs and Tenure. ASA Footnotes. $7:1. Retrieved from: https://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/attach/footnotes/footnotes_jan-feb-19.pdf

Leber, J. (2019). Species Sleuths: Amateur Naturalists Spark a New Wave of Discovery. Yale Environment 360. Retrieved from: https://e360.yale.edu/features/field-sleuths-the-amateur-naturalists-who-are-discovering-new-species

Nuwer, R. (2013). A Rallying Cry For Naming All Species On Earth. New York Times. Retrieved from: https://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/a-rallying-cry-for-naming-all-species-on-earth/

Fraussen, Koen. Personal Communication (2020). Bus Driver, Public Transport Company, Flanders, Belgium. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=author%3A%22Fraussen+Koen%22&btnG=&oq=frauss

Mora, Camilo. Personal Communication (2020). Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawaii. http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/mora/index.html

Direct download: Why_Most_New_Species_Are_Discovered_By_Amateurs.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:18pm EDT

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