MinuteEarth (general)

Check out the heroes who saved the ozone layer at https://futureoflife.org/future-of-life-award/
Lots of global problems seem intractable, but there’s a formula for success that we can follow.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Ozone layer: A thin layer of ozone concentrated in the Earth’s stratosphere roughly 10 kilometers above that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation before it hits the Earth’s surface.
Ultraviolet radiation: Invisible rays of energy that come from the sun that can be harmful to humans and other lifeforms.
Chlorofluorocarbons: Also known as CFCs, these long man-made molecules used to be widely used refrigerants and solvents before it was discovered that - when exposed to ultraviolet radiation - their chlorine atoms would break off and combine with ozone molecules.
Smallpox: A virus that killed more than half a billion humans before being eradicated in 1980.
Disease Surveillance: A practice by which disease progressions are closely monitored in order to minimize the harm caused by outbreaks.

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CREDITS
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David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
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Ochmann, Sophie, and Max Roser. “Smallpox.” Our World in Data, 2018, https://ourworldindata.org/smallpox. Data on Smallpox.
Henderson, D A. SMALLPOX - the DEATH of a DISEASE : The inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer. S.L., Prometheus, 2021, pp. 57–61.
CDC. “History of Smallpox.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 Feb. 2021, https://cdc.gov/smallpox/history/history.html.
Waxman, Olivia B. 2019. “Reagan Administration Officials at First Dismissed the Ozone Hole. Here’s What Changed.” Time. April 9, 2019. https://time.com/5564651/reagan-ozone-hole/
Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland. 2007. “The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (12): 4814–19. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0610328104.
US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. n.d. “Susan Solomon: Pioneering Atmospheric Scientist.” Celebrating200years.noaa.gov. Accessed July 20, 2021. https://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/historymakers/solomon/welcome.html.
Solomon, Susan. 2019. “The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole.” Nature 575 (7781): 46–47. https://doi.org/10.1038/d41586-019-02837-5
Pyle, John, and Neil Harris. 2013. “Joe Farman (1930–2013).” Nature 498 (7455): 435–35. https://doi.org/10.1038/498435a.
Foege, William H, and Milbank Memorial Fund. House on Fire : The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox. Berkeley, University Of California Press, 2012
Future of Life Institute. “Future of Life Award 2020: Saving 200,000,000 Lives by Eradicating Smallpox.” Future of Life Institute, Lucas Perry, 11 Dec. 2020, https://futureoflife.org/the-future-of-life-podcast/.

Direct download: How_To_Solve_Every_Global_Crisis.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:53pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
People all around the world tend to represent time via space, but there’s no consensus on which way time goes.

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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Bergen, B. K. & Lau, T. T. C. (2012) Writing direction affects how people map space onto time. Frontiers in Psychology 3:109. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00109/full

Boroditsky, L. (2000). Metaphoric Structuring: Understanding time through spatial metaphors. Cognition, 75(1), 1-28. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027799000736

Casasanto, D. & Boroditsky, L. (2008). Time in the mind: Using space to think about time. Cognition 106 (2):579-593 http://lera.ucsd.edu/papers/duration-cognition-2008.pdf

Majid, A., Gaby, A., & Boroditsky, L. (2013). Time in terms of space. Frontiers in Psychology, 4: 554. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00554/full

Núñez, R., Cooperrider, K., Doan, D., & Wassmann, J. (2012). Contours of time: Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 124(1), 25– 35. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0010027712000571

Direct download: Where_is_Tomorrow.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:52pm EDT

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Because smaller animals have to eat more relative to their bodyweight, Tolkein’s hobbits need to eat a lot - not for comfort, but for survival.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Metabolism: The chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Square-cube Law: A mathematical principle which describes the relationship between the volume and the surface area as a shape's size increases or decreases.
Kleiber’s Law: The observation that, for the vast majority of animals, an animal's metabolic rate scales to the 3⁄4 power of the animal's mass.
Calorie: Unit of energy. One food calorie equals 1 kilocalorie.

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CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke | Script Writer
David Goldenberg | Script Editor, Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
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Kleiber, M. (1947). BODY SIZE AND METABOLIC RATE. Physiological Reviews, 27(4), 511–541. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.1947.27.4.511.

Dawson, N. (1967). The Surface-Area/Body-Weight Relationship in Mice. Australian Journal of Biological Sciences, 20(3), 687. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1071/bi9670687.

How Much Does an Elephant Weigh? (2019, September 26). Wonderopolis.org. Retrieved from: https://wonderopolis.org/wonder/how-much-does-an-elephant-weigh

Thommen, Albert, et al. “Body Size-Dependent Energy Storage Causes Kleiber’s Law Scaling of the Metabolic Rate in Planarians.” (2019) ELife, eLife Sciences Publications, Ltd, 4 Jan. 2019. Retrieved from: http://www.elifesciences.org/articles/38187.

West, G. B., Brown, J. H., & Enquist, B. J. (1997). A General Model for the Origin of Allometric Scaling Laws in Biology. Science, 276(5309), 122–126. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1126/science.276.5309.122.

Direct download: Why_Do_Hobbits_Need_SEVEN_Meals.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:11pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at http://www.curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
Sharks wouldn’t be known for their fierce teeth today if it weren’t for their ancient scales.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Dermal denticles: also called placoid scales, they’re the most primitive form of fish scales that are structurally similar to teeth and are today found only in sharks, rays, and chimaeras.
Outside-in theory: The strongest theory for the evolution of teeth, which are thought to have evolved from dermal denticle scales.
Ostracoderms: Extinct armored jawless fish that lived in the Paleozoic Era
Thelodonts: Extinct jawless fish that had individual scales as opposed to plates of armor
Placoderms: Now extinct, they were some of the first jawed fish and lived from the Silurian through the Devonian era.

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CREDITS
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Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Kate Yoshida | Co-Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Donoghue, Philip CJ, and Martin Rücklin. "The ins and outs of the evolutionary origin of teeth." Evolution & development 18.1 (2016): 19-30. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/ede.12099

Fraser, Gareth J., et al. "The odontode explosion: the origin of tooth‐like structures in vertebrates." Bioessays 32.9 (2010): 808-817. https://authors.library.caltech.edu/20188/3/nihms266189.pdf

Huysseune, Ann, Jean‐Yves Sire, and P. Eckhard Witten. "Evolutionary and developmental origins of the vertebrate dentition." Journal of Anatomy 214.4 (2009): 465-476. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2736119/

Pennisi, Elizabeth. "Eating Was Tough For Early Tetrapods." (2013): 390-391. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/339/6118/390.full

Direct download: Why_Sharks_Are_Covered_In_Teeth.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:11pm EDT

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While the rest of the world’s megafauna are still foundering in the anthropocene era, these two big animals have used little animal strategies to bounce back. Way back.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Megafauna: Large animals, usually over 45 Kgs.
- Anthropocene era: A proposed time period delineated the age during which human activity has been the dominant force on the environment and the climate.
- Holocene Extinction: An ongoing extinction event of species due to human activity.
- Fertility Rate: The number of babies an organism has in its lifetime.
- Omnivory: The ability to eat food from two different trophic levels.
- Bubble-Net Feeding: A cooperative hunting technique where groups of whales use bubbles to disorient fish prey.

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CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Vivitskaia, J D, Tulloch, Éva E Plagányi, Richard Matear, Christopher J Brown, Anthony J Richardson. (2017) Ecosystem modelling to quantify the impact of historical whaling on Southern Hemisphere baleen whales. Fish and Fisheries, 19:1 (117-137). Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/faf.12241

Kosma Madison M., Werth Alexander J., Szabo Andrew R. and Straley Janice M. (2019). Pectoral herding: an innovative tactic for humpback whale foraging. Royal Society Open Science. 6:10. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsos.191104

Ritchie, Hannah, Roser, Max. "Biodiversity". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/biodiversity

Pershing, A. J., Christensen, L. B., Record, N. R., Sherwood, G. D., & Stetson, P. B. (2010). The impact of whaling on the ocean carbon cycle: why bigger was better. PloS One, 5(8), e12444. Retrieved from: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0012444

Ripple, William J., Newsome, Thomas M., Wolf, Christopher, Dirzo, Rodolfo, Everatt, Kristoffer, T.Galetti, Mauro, Hayward, Matt W.Kerley, Graham I. H.Levi, Taal, Lindsey, Peter A, Macdonald, David W. Malhi, Yadvinder, Painter, Luke E.Sandom, Christopher J., Terborgh, JohnVan, Valkenburgh, Blaire. (2015) Collapse of the world’s largest herbivores. Science Advances. 1:3 Retrieved from: https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/4/e1400103/tab-pdf

Meynecke, Olaf. 2021. Personal communication. Center for Coastal and Marine Management, Griffith University. https://www.dr-olaf.com/

Pallin Logan J., Baker C. Scott, Steel Debbie, Kellar Nicholas M., Robbins Jooke, Johnston David W., Nowacek Doug P., Read Andrew J. and Friedlaender Ari S. (2018) High pregnancy rates in humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) around the Western Antarctic Peninsula, evidence of a rapidly growing population. Royal Society Open Science. 5:5. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.180017

Holland, Jennifer. (2015) Black Bears Are Rebounding - What Does That Mean For People? National Geographic. Retrieved from: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/animals/article/150626-black-bears-animals-science-nation-conservation?loggedin=true

Ramona L. Gonzales, Alejandra V. Mendoza, Brendan M. Himelright, Jenna M. Moore, Thomas J. Spady (2013) American black bear mating behavior and chemosensation of estrus. Ursus, 24(2), 139-147. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/ursus/volume-24/issue-2/URSUS-D-12-00026.1/American-black-bear-mating-behavior-and-chemosensation-of-estrus/10.2192/URSUS-D-12-00026.1.short

Himelright, B. M., Moore, J. M., Gonzales, R. L., Mendoza, A. V., Dye, P. S., Schuett, R. J., Durrant, B. S., Read, B. A., & Spady, T. J. (2014). Sequential ovulation and fertility of polyoestrous in American black bears (Ursus americanus). Conservation physiology, 2(1), Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/cou051

Direct download: How_A_Whale_And_A_Bear_Beat_The_System.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:10pm EDT

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It’s not just how much you take in; it’s how fast your body can purge it.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Poison: A substance that is capable of causing illness or death when introduced or absorbed.
Overdose: A dangerously large dose of a substance.
Biotransformation: The process by which foreign chemicals are transformed by the body into less toxic substances.
Polydipsia: The medical term for feelings of extreme thirst that can lead to hyponatremia.
Hyponatremia: Abnormally low sodium in the blood often caused by excessive water consumption.
Lethal Concentration - The concentration a substance needs to be in the bloodstream to kill 50% of subjects.
Metabolism - the chemical processes that occur within a living organism in order to maintain life.
Toxicity - the quality of being toxic or poisonous.
Excretion - the process of eliminating or expelling waste matter.

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CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam) | Script Writer
David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
ATSDR. (2006). Toxicological Profile for Cyanide. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp8-c3.pdf

Cyanide Fact. (2013). Johns Hopkins Center for Health Security. https://www.centerforhealthsecurity.org/our-work/publications/cyanide-fact-sheet

Lead (Pb) Toxicity: What is the Biological Fate of Lead in the Body? | Environmental Medicine | ATSDR. (2021, February 9). Cdc.gov. https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/csem/leadtoxicity/biologic_fate.html

Lethal Doses of Water, Caffeine and Alcohol. (2014, July 27). Compound Interest. https://www.compoundchem.com/2014/07/27/lethaldoses/

Radcliffe, S. (2017, May 25). How You Can Die From a Caffeine Overdose. Healthline; Healthline Media. https://www.healthline.com/health-news/how-you-can-die-from-caffeine#Caffeine-overdose-is-rare

Shalat, S. (2016, February 4). Toxic lead can stay in the body for years after exposure. The Conversation. https://theconversation.com/toxic-lead-can-stay-in-the-body-for-years-after-exposure-53607

Shenvi, C. (2016, February 16). Hydroxocobalamin: Turning Cyanide into Vitamin B12 | Emergency Physicians Monthly. Emergency Physicians Monthly | EPM. https://epmonthly.com/article/hydroxocobalamin-turning-cyanide-into-vitamin-b12/

Direct download: Why_Poison_Sometimes_Doesnt_Kill_You.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:44pm EDT

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Optimal foraging theory means that turning down food is sometimes more efficient than eating it - but even then, what’s “wasted” doesn’t necessarily go to waste.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Foraging: to search widely for food.
Optimal Foraging Theory: A behavioral model that describes how an animal should behave when searching for food.
Surplus Killing: a common behavior exhibited by predators, in which they kill more prey than they can immediately eat and then cache or abandon the remainder.

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CREDITS
*********
Cameron Duke | Script Writer
Kate Yoshida | Script Editor
Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator and Director
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Alcock, J. (2013). Animal behavior : an evolutionary approach. Sinauer, Cop.

Hopkins, J. B. (2013). Use of genetics to investigate socially learned foraging behavior in free-ranging black bears. Journal of Mammalogy, 94(6), 1214–1222. https://doi.org/10.1644/13-mamm-a-009.1

Klinka, D. R., & Reimchen, T. E. (2009). Darkness, Twilight, and Daylight Foraging Success of Bears (Ursus americanus) on Salmon in Coastal British Columbia. Journal of Mammalogy, 90(1), 144–149. https://doi.org/10.1644/07-mamm-a-200.1

Lincoln, A. E., & Quinn, T. P. (2018). Optimal foraging or surplus killing: selective consumption and discarding of salmon by brown bears. Behavioral Ecology, 30(1), 202–212. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ary139

Lounibos, L. P., Makhni, S., Alto, B. W., & Kesavaraju, B. (2008). Surplus Killing by Predatory Larvae of Corethrella appendiculata: Prepupal Timing and Site-Specific Attack on Mosquito Prey. Journal of Insect Behavior, 21(2), 47–54. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10905-007-9103-2

Maupin, J. L. (2001). Superfluous killing in spiders: a consequence of adaptation to food-limited environments? Behavioral Ecology, 12(5), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/12.5.569

McMahon, B. F., & Evans, R. M. (1992). Foraging Strategies of American White Pelicans. Behaviour, 120(1-2), 69–89. https://doi.org/10.1163/156853992x00219

Direct download: Why_These_Bears_Waste_Food.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:46pm EDT

Watch the new season of MinuteBody - and get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula - at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth.
Fevers are one of our best weapons against infections, but they don't work like you might think.

We'd like to give a big thank you to Sharon Evans from the Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center for sharing her expertise for this video!

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Fever: a rise in body temperature, usually caused by infection
Heat shock proteins (HSP): a family of proteins that are produced by cells in response to exposure to stressful conditions
Neutrophils: white blood cells that play an important role in inflammation and are early responders to pathogens.
T cells: major components of the adaptive immune system whose roles include regulating the immune response to pathogens.

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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Appenheimer, M.M. & Evans, S.S. (2018) Temperature and adaptive immunity. Handbook of Clinical Neurology 156: 397–415. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B978-0-444-63912-7.00024-2

Casadevall, A. (2016) Thermal Restriction as an Antimicrobial Function of Fever. PLoS Pathog 12(5): e1005577. https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1005577

ChangDong L. et al. (2019). Fever Promotes T Lymphocyte Trafficking via a Thermal Sensory Pathway Involving Heat Shock Protein 90 and α4 Integrins. Immunity 50(1):137-151. https://www.cell.com/immunity/fulltext/S1074-7613(18)30495-3

Evans, S.S. et al. (2015) Fever and the thermal regulation of immunity: the immune system feels the heat. Nature Reviews Immunology 15(6): 335+. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4786079/

Hasday, J.D., Thompson, C., Singh, I.S. (2014) Fever, immunity, and molecular adaptations. Comprehensive Physiology 4:109–48. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cphy.c130019

Hasday, J.D. & Singh, I.S. (2000) Fever and the heat shock response: distinct, partially overlapping processes. Cell Stress Chaperones 5:471–480. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC312879/

Javid, B., MacAry, P.A. & Lehner, P.J. (2007) Structure and function: heat shock proteins and adaptive immunity. Journal of Immunology 179:2035–2040. https://www.jimmunol.org/content/179/4/2035

Mackowiak, P. A.: Direct effects of hyperthermia on pathogenic microorganisms: teleological implications with regard to fever. Reviews of Infectious Diseases 1981, 3: 508–518. https://academic.oup.com/cid/article-abstract/3/3/508/307776

Direct download: How_Fevers_REALLY_Work.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:54pm EDT

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By analyzing survivorship curves over the centuries, we can learn what’s changed about how - and when - humans die.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life Expectancy At Birth: The average number of years a newborn in a particular group could expect to live.
Mortality Rate: The frequency of occurrence of death within a particular group during a particular time period.
Life Table: A table that shows the number of individuals within a group that survive from one year to the next until they are all dead.
Survivorship Curve: A plot of the data in a particular life table that shows the years on the x-axis and the number or percent of survivors on the y-axis.
Infant Mortality: The death of an infant before his or her first birthday.

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Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Medina, L. et al. (2020). Living Longer: Historical and Projected Life Expectancy in the United States, 1960 to 2060. Retrieved from: https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/publications/2020/demo/p25-1145.pdf

Hacker J. D. (2010). Decennial Life Tables for the White Population of the United States, 1790-1900. Historical methods, 43(2), 45–79. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2885717/

United Nations. 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wpp2019/Download/Standard/Mortality/.

Szmigiera, M. (2021). Projected global infant mortality rate 1990-2100. Statista. Retrieved from : https://www.statista.com/statistics/673449/projected-global-infant-mortality-rate/

Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. (1910). United States Life Tables: Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life1890-1910.pdf

US Department of Health, Education and Welfare. (1964). Life Tables. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/lifetables/life59-61_1_1acc.pdf

Arias, E. (2014). National Vital Statistics Reports. United States Life Tables, 2010. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/nvsr/nvsr63/nvsr63_07.pdf

Direct download: How_Long_Did_People_Use_To_Live.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:24pm EDT

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It turns out that defining what is and isn't a “tree” is way harder than it seems.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Wood: A bunch of cellulose fibers intertwined with lignin usually found in the trunk of a tree.
Trunk: A wooden stem that thickens over time.
Bonsai: An ornamental tree or shrub that is artificially prevented from reaching its normal size.
Shrub: A woody plant that is smaller than a tree.
Gymnosperm: A group of plants, including conifers, that have naked seeds.
Angiosperm: A group of plants, including lots of other “trees” that have enclosed seeds.
Monocots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with a single embryonic leaf that includes palm trees.
Dicots: A group of flowering plants - mostly angiosperms - with two embryonic leaves that includes oak trees.

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OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Georg Miehe, Sabine Miehe, Jonas Vogel, Sonam Co, Duo La. (2007) "Highest Treeline in the Northern Hemisphere Found in Southern Tibet," Mountain Research and Development, 27(2), 169-173. Retrieved from: https://bioone.org/journals/mountain-research-and-development/volume-27/issue-2/mrd.0792/Highest-Treeline-in-the-Northern-Hemisphere-Found-in-Southern-Tibet/10.1659/mrd.0792.full#i0276-4741-27-2-169-b33

Ellenberg, H., Mueller-Dombois, D. (1965). A key to Raunkiaer plant life forms with revised subdivisions. Retrieved from: https://www.e-periodica.ch/cntmng?pid=bgi-002%3A1965%3A37%3A%3A130

Alcott, D. (2019). Are palm trees really trees? That’s Life Science. Retrieved from: http://thatslifesci.com/2019-11-25-Are-palm-trees-really-trees-dalcott/

David B. Neale, Pedro J. Martínez-García, Amanda R. De La Torre, Sara Montanari, Xiao-Xin Wei. (2017). “Novel Insights into Tree Biology and Genome Evolution as Revealed Through Genomics.” Annual Review of Plant Biology 68:1, 457-483. Retrieved from: https://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-arplant-042916-041049?journalCode=arplant

Ehrenberg, Rachel. (2018). “What Makes A Tree A Tree?” Knowable Magazine. Retrieved from: https://knowablemagazine.org/article/living-world/2018/what-makes-tree-tree#:~:text=A%20banana%20tree%27s%20trunk%20doesn,cells%20typical%20of%20most%20trees

Christophe Plomion, Grégoire Leprovost, Alexia Stokes. (2001). “Wood Formation in Trees”. Plant Physiology, Volume 127, 4: 1513–1523. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.010816

Ray, Georgia (2021). "There’s no such thing as a tree (phylogenetically)". Eukaryote Writes Blog. Retrieved from: https://eukaryotewritesblog.com/2021/05/02/theres-no-such-thing-as-a-tree/

Direct download: We_dont_know_what_a_tree_is_and_this_video_wont_tell_you.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 6:27pm EDT

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We might have a strong hand because having a weak hand is actually useful.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Handedness: the tendency to use one hand more than the other for specific tasks

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Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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OUR STAFF
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David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
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REFERENCES
**************
Chédotal A and LJ Richards. 2010. Wiring the brain: the biology of neuronal guidance. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2010 Jun; 2(6): a001917. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a001917

Magat M and C Brown. 2009. Laterality enhances cognition in Australian parrots. Proc. R. Soc. B 276:4155-4162

Forrester GS, WD Hopkins, K Hudry, A Lindell (eds). 2018. Cerebral Lateralization and Cognition: Evolutionary and Developmental Investigations of Behavioral Biases. Progress in Brain Research. Book series. Volume 238, Pages 2-433

Corballis MC (2014) Left Brain, Right Brain: Facts and Fantasies. PLoS Biol 12(1): e1001767. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001767

Direct download: Why_Its_Good_To_Have_A_Weak_Hand.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:30pm EDT

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The global pandemic led to a drop in outdoor air pollution, but it also led to an increase in indoor air pollution - and our exposure to it.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Particulate matter: often abbreviated PM, it is the sum of all the tiny particles and drops of liquid suspended in the air including soil, soot, dust, metals, and acids like nitrates.
Air quality: a measurement of how polluted the air is, judged by the level of known pollutants in the air like NO2 and particulate matter like soot.
Ozonolysis: an organic chemical reaction wherein ozone cleaves a carbon-carbon bond in unsaturated compounds.

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Arcadi i Garcia Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation
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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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OUR STAFF
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REFERENCES
**************
Anthes, Emily. "Coronavirus lockdowns may raise exposure to indoor air pollution." Scientific American 1 (2020).
Chen, Yilin, et al. "Environmental Inequality Deepened During the COVID-19 in the Developing World." Environmental Science & Technology (2020).
Eldeirawi, Kamal, et al. "Increased disinfectant use among adults with asthma in the era of COVID-19." The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice 9.3 (2021): 1378-1380.
González-Martín, Javier, et al. "A state-of-the-art review on indoor air pollution and strategies for indoor air pollution control." Chemosphere (2020): 128376.
Hoddinott, K. B., and A. P. Lee. "The use of environmental risk assessment methodologies for an indoor air quality investigation." Chemosphere 41.1-2 (2000): 77-84.
Klepeis, Neil E., et al. "The National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS): a resource for assessing exposure to environmental pollutants." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 11.3 (2001): 231-252.
Lewis, Dyani. "COVID-19 rarely spreads through surfaces. So why are we still deep cleaning." Nature 590.7844 (2021): 26-28.
Long, Christopher M., and Peter A. Valberg. "Indoor airborne particulate matter: Unregulated, but a major contributor to our everyday exposure." Nat. Resources & Env't 32 (2017): 8.
Megahed, Naglaa A., and Ehab M. Ghoneim. "Indoor Air Quality: Rethinking rules of building design strategies in post-pandemic architecture." Environmental Research (2020): 110471.
Nazaroff, William W., and Charles J. Weschler. "Cleaning products and air fresheners: exposure to primary and secondary air pollutants." Atmospheric environment 38.18 (2004): 2841-2865.
Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C., Joseph G. Allen, and Paloma I. Beamer. "Another invisible enemy indoors: COVID-19, human health, the home, and United States indoor air policy." Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology 30.5 (2020): 773-775.
Patel, Sameer, et al. "Indoor particulate matter during HOMEChem: Concentrations, size distributions, and exposures." Environmental science & technology 54.12 (2020): 7107-7116.
Pluschke, Peter, and Hans Schleibinger. Indoor air pollution. Springer, 2018.
Smith, Kirk R., et al. "Millions dead: how do we know and what does it mean? Methods used in the comparative risk assessment of household air pollution." Annual review of public health 35 (2014): 185-206.
Sundell, Jan. "On the history of indoor air quality and health." Indoor air 14.s 7 (2004): 51-58.
Schwarzenegger, Arnold. "Indoor air pollution in California." California EPA (2005).
Torkmahalleh, Mehdi Amouei, et al. "Review of factors impacting emission/concentration of cooking generated particulate matter." Science of the Total Environment 586 (2017): 1046-1056.
Tran, Vinh Van, Duckshin Park, and Young-Chul Lee. "Indoor air pollution, related human diseases, and recent trends in the control and improvement of indoor air quality." Internatio
Venter, Zander S., et al. "COVID-19 lockdowns cause global air pollution declines." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117.32 (2020): 18984-18990.

Direct download: An_Unexpected_Consequence_of_COVID.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:30pm EDT

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Because there are so many different types of penises among our evolutionary relatives, we didn’t know until a recent discovery whether they all had the same origin.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Amniote: Vertebrates whose embryos are enclosed in a thin sac.
- Cloaca: A posterior orifice used for excretion and reproduction.
- Cloacal Kiss: A method that penisless amniotes use to mate, which involves males and females momentarily pressing their cloacae together.
- Tuatara: Reptiles endemic to New Zealand that are the only surviving members of their ancient amniote group.
- Hemipenis: One of the paired copulatory organs of lizards and snakes.
- Bmp4: A protein that, when present, stifles the growth of penises in chick embryos.
- Convergent Evolution: The independent evolution of similar features in different species.

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David Goldenberg | Script Editor & Narrator
Adam Thompson | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Ever Salazar | Director
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
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Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida


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REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Dendy, Arthur. 1899. “Memoirs: Outlines of the Development of the Tuatara, Sphenodon (Hatteria) punctatus.” Journal of Cell Science s2-42: 1–87.

Cree, Alison. 2014. Tuatara: Biology and Conservation of a Venerable Survivor. Christchurch, New Zealand: Canterbury University Press.

Gans, Carl, James C. Gillingham, and David Lang Clark. 1984. “Courtship, Mating and Male Combat in Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus.” Journal of Herpetology 18 (2): 194–97. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2307/1563749.

Sanger, Thomas J., Marissa L. Gredler, and Martin J. Cohn. 2015. “Resurrecting Embryos of the Tuatara, Sphenodon punctatus, to Resolve Vertebrate Phallus Evolution.” Biology Letters 11 (10): pii: 20150694. REtreieved from: https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0694.

Herrera, Ana María, Simone G. Shuster, Claire L. Perriton, and Martin J. Cohn. 2013. “Developmental Basis of Phallus Reduction During Bird Evolution.” Current Biology 23 (12): 1065–74. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.04.062.

Brennan, Patricia L. R. 2016a. “Evolution: One Penis After All.” Current Biology 26: R29–R31. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.024.

Willingham, Emily. 2020. Fallacy: Life Lessons from the Animal Penis. Avery. Retrieved from: https://www.amazon.com/Phallacy-Life-Lessons-Animal-Penis/dp/0593087178

Direct download: The_Mystery_Of_The_Missing_Penis.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 6:40pm EDT

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Humans are the only animals known to faint due to triggers like shock, fear, or pain; this is due to a combination of our massive brains and upright stance.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
"Fight or flight": an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that readies animals (including humans) to either resist forcibly or escape
Fainting: loss of consciousness caused by a temporary lack of oxygen to the brain, also known as “syncope.”
Vasovagal syncope: a type of fainting that happens when your body overreacts to an emotional trigger like being in danger, seeing blood, or even just hearing some shocking news.
Tonic immobility: an instinctive physiological response to a threatening situation that causes some animals to relax their muscles and “freeze” in place, sometimes causing them to fall over
Jump scare: a technique often used in horror films meant to scare the audience with a sudden change on screen, usually paired with a loud sound

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Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing, and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Piano Jump Scare Stinger by TheSoundFXGuy_YT of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/TheSoundFXGuy_YT/sounds/534218/
Licensed under CC BY 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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REFERENCES
**************
Alboni, Paolo, and Marco Alboni. "Origin and Evolution of the Vasovagal Reflex." Vasovagal Syncope. Springer, Cham, 2015. 3-17.

Alboni, P., Alboni, M. “Typical vasovagal syncope as a “defense mechanism” for the heart by contrasting sympathetic overactivity.” Clin Auton Res 27, 253–261 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-017-0446-2

Blanc, Jean-Jacques, Paolo Alboni, and David G. Benditt. "Vasovagal syncope in humans and protective reactions in animals." Ep Europace 17.3 (2015): 345-349.

Bracha, H., Bienvenu, O. & Person, D. “Evolution and fear-fainting.” Clin Auton Res 16, 299 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-006-0359-y

Buckey JC, Peshock RM, Blomqvist CG. “Deep venous contribution to hydrostatic blood volume change in the human leg.” Am J Cardiol. 1988 Sep 1;62(7):449-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(88)90976-9.

Furst, Branko. "The Effect of Gravity and Upright Posture on Circulation." The Heart and Circulation. Springer, Cham, 2020. 319-341.

Kozlowska K, Walker P, McLean L, Carrive P. “Fear and the Defense Cascade: Clinical Implications and Management.” Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2015 Jul-Aug;23(4):263-87. https://doi.org/10.1097/HRP.0000000000000065.

Roelofs, Karin. "Freeze for action: neurobiological mechanisms in animal and human freezing." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 372.1718 (2017): 20160206.

Sheldon, Robert S., and Roopinder K. Sandhu. "The search for the genes of vasovagal syncope." Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine 6 (2019): 175.

Sun, Benjamin C., Jennifer A. Emond, and Carlos A. Camargo Jr. "Direct medical costs of syncope-related hospitalizations in the United States." The American journal of cardiology 95.5 (2005): 668-671.

van Dijk JG. “Fainting in animals.” Clin Auton Res. 2003 Aug;13(4):247-55. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10286-003-0099-1.

Direct download: Why_We_Faint_When_Other_Animals_Dont.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:30pm EDT

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All over the world, giant wave breaks appear because of underwater geology that supercharges their wave energy.

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Amplitude - The distance between the crest and trough of a wave.
Bathymetry - The measurement of depth of water in oceans, seas, or lakes.
Nazaré Canyon - An undersea canyon just off the coast of Nazaré, Portugal, in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean. It is the largest submarine canyon in Europe, reaching depths of about 5,000 meters (16,000 ft) deep and a length of about 230 kilometers (140 mi).
Plunging Breaker - Occurs when there are rapid depth changes. The crest of the wave becomes very steep, and the rear of the wave violently plunges over the front.
Reef Break - A location where waves break over a reef, often amplifying them.
Spilling Breaker - Occurs when the seafloor slopes gradually. As the wave becomes unstable, energy is dissipated by water spilling over the crest of the wave.
Swell - a slow, regular movement of the sea in rolling waves that do not break.
Wave period - The time between waves.

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MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Babanin, A. V., Rogers, W. E., de Camargo, R., Doble, M., Durrant, T., Filchuk, K., Ewans, K., Hemer, M., Janssen, T., Kelly-Gerreyn, B., Machutchon, K., McComb, P., Qiao, F., Schulz, E., Skvortsov, A., Thomson, J., Vichi, M., Violante-Carvalho, N., Wang, D., & Waseda, T. (2019). Waves and Swells in High Wind and Extreme Fetches, Measurements in the Southern Ocean. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.3389/fmars.2019.00361

Editor At Surfertoday.com. (2013, November 5). The canyon that makes waves. Surfertoday; SurferToday.com | The Ultimate Surfing News Website. Retrieved from: https://www.surfertoday.com/surfing/the-canyon-that-makes-waves

Griffiths, L. S., & Porter, R. (2012). Focusing of surface waves by variable bathymetry. Applied Ocean Research, 34, 150–163. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apor.2011.08.004

Inman, D. (2021). Living with Coastal Change - Coastal Basics - Wave Refraction Model - Jaws, Hawaii. Ucsd.edu. Retrieved from: http://coastalchange.ucsd.edu/st3_basics/p_waverefrac.html#bathymetric_map

Keating, S. (2020, January 6). The story of a wave: from wind-blown ripples to breaking on the beach. The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/the-story-of-a-wave-from-wind-blown-ripples-to-breaking-on-the-beach-128458

Pedro Proença Cunha, & Margarida, M. (2015, February). The Nazaré coast, the submarine canyon and the giant waves - a synthesis. ResearchGate; Universidade de Coimbra. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/275522569_The_Nazare_coast_the_submarine_canyon_and_the_giant_waves_-_a_synthesis

Pinet, P. R. (2009). Invitation to oceanography (5th ed.). Jones & Bartlett Learning.
The generation and propagation of ocean waves and swell. I. Wave periods and velocities | Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. (2017). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences. Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rsta.1948.0005

Warner, S. (2020). What makes the world’s biggest surfable waves? The Conversation. Retrieved from: https://theconversation.com/what-makes-the-worlds-biggest-surfable-waves-150600

Warner, S. (2021). Department of Environmental Studies, Brandeis University. Personal Communication. Homepage: https://www.brandeis.edu/facultyguide/person.html?emplid=6cf46554ff6936fa51d9e22d0414e63798a5c4a1

Direct download: How_Do_Some_Waves_Get_SO_Big.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:40pm EDT

To learn more about restoration action - and get involved - visit RESTOR from the Crowther Lab at https://restor.eco.
Superheroes - imaginary and real - aren't all that super on their own...here's why.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
carbon sequestration: the process of capturing and storing atmospheric carbon dioxide
productivity: the rate of generation of biomass (and therefore carbon storage) in an ecosystem

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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer and Narrator
David Goldenberg | Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Bar-On, Y. M., Phillips, R., & Milo, R. (2018). The biomass distribution on Earth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 201711842. http://www.pnas.org/content/115/25/6506.

Liang J et al. (2016). Positive biodiversity–productivity relationship predominant in global forests. Science 354: 6309. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/354/6309/aaf8957

Liu X et al. 2018 Tree species richness increases ecosystem carbon storage in subtropical forests. Proc. R. Soc. B
285: 20181240. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2018.1240

Mistry J, Bilbao BA, Berardi A. (2016). Community owned solutions for fire management in tropical ecosystems: case studies from Indigenous communities of South America. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 371: 20150174.
https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2015.0174

Oehri J. et al (2020). Terrestrial land-cover type richness is positively linked to landscape-level functioning. Nature Communications 11 (1). https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-14002-7

Schmitz O.J. et al. Animals and the zoogeochemistry of the carbon cycle. Science. 2018; 362. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6419/eaar3213/

Sobral, M. et al. (2017). Mammal diversity influences the carbon cycle through trophic interactions in the Amazon. Nature Ecology & Evolution 1: 1670–1676. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41559-017-0334-0

Soto-Navarro C, et al. (2020). Mapping co-benefits for carbon storage and biodiversity to inform conservation policy and action. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 375: 20190128. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2019.0128

Direct download: The_Ecology_of_Superheroes.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:10pm EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2
You might already know that proteins are a fundamental part of your diet, but they're much more than that.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
- Amino acids: are organic compounds that contain amino (–NH2) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain specific to each amino acid.
- Proteins: are macromolecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acid residues. Most proteins fold into unique 3D structures. The shape into which a protein naturally folds is known as its native conformation.
- Alpha helix (α-helix): is a common motif in the secondary structure of proteins and is a right hand-helix conformation in which every backbone N−H group hydrogen bonds to the backbone C=O group of the amino acid located four residues earlier along the protein sequence.
- Beta sheet (β-sheet): is a common motif of the regular protein secondary structure and consists of beta strands (β-strands) connected laterally by at least two or three backbone hydrogen bonds, forming a generally twisted, pleated sheet.
- Ribbon diagrams: are 3D schematic representations of protein structure that shows the overall path and organization of the protein backbone in 3D. Ribbon diagrams are generated by interpolating a smooth curve through the polypeptide backbone. α-helices are shown as coiled ribbons or thick tubes, β-strands as arrows, and non-repetitive coils or loops as lines or thin tubes.

CREDITS
*********
Ever Salazar | Co-Writer, Narrator, Illustrator and Director
David Wych | Co-writer and Consultant
Aldo de Vos, Know Art | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius • David Goldenberg
Julián Gustavo Gómez • Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich
Henry Reich • Peter Reich • Leonardo Souza
Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

OTHER CREDITS & REFERENCES
**********************************
Goodsell, David (2006). Visual Methods from Atoms to Cells. Structure 13, Issue 3:347-354. doi:10.1016/j.str.2005.01.012

Protein 3D images created using Mol* (https://molstar.org/) and structure data from RCSB PDB (https://www.rcsb.org/)

Mol* (D. Sehnal, A.S. Rose, J. Kovca, S.K. Burley, S. Velankar (2018) Mol*: Towards a common library and tools for web molecular graphics MolVA/EuroVis Proceedings. doi:10.2312/molva.20181103)

Villin folding trajectory by Stefan Doerr - https://figshare.com/authors/Stefan_Doerr/748688

Clathrin Structure (PDB ID: 3IYV)
Fotin, A., et al (2004). Molecular model for a complete clathrin lattice from electron cryomicroscopy. Nature 432: 573-579. doi:10.1038/nature03079

Immunoglobulin Structure (PDB IDs: 1IGT & 1IGY)
Harris, L.J., et al (1998). Crystallographic structure of an intact IgG1 monoclonal antibody. J Mol Biol 275: 861-872. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1997.1508

ATP Synthase Structure (PDB IDs: 5ARE, 5ARI & 5FIL)
Zhou, A., et al (2015). Structure and conformational states of the bovine mitochondrial ATP synthase by cryo-EM. ELife, 4. doi:10.7554/eLife.10180

RCSB PDB Molecule of the Month by David S. Goodsell (The Scripps Research Institute and the RCSB PDB) - https://pdb101.rcsb.org/motm/72

Photosystem II (PDB ID: 5XNL)
Su, X., et al (2017). Structure and assembly mechanism of plant C2S2M2-type PSII-LHCII supercomplex. Science 357: 815-820. doi:10.1126/science.aan0327

Ribonuclease (PDB ID: 2AAS)
Santoro, J., et al (1993). High-resolution three-dimensional structure of ribonuclease A in solution by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. J Mol Biol 229: 722-734. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1993.1075

Myosin (PDB ID: 1B7T)
Houdusse, A., et al (1999). Atomic structure of scallop myosin subfragment S1 complexed with MgADP: a novel conformation of the myosin head. Cell 97: 459-470. doi:10.1016/s0092-8674(00)80756-4

Direct download: Proteins_Explained.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:07pm EDT

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The body can get a whole lot colder - but not a whole lot hotter - before we die. Why is that?

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Hyperthermia: a medical condition where an individual's body temperature is elevated beyond normal
Hypothermia: a medical doncition that occurs when an individual's body loses heat faster than it can produce heat, causing a dangerously low body temperature
Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different
Denaturation: the alteration of a protein shape through some form of external stress (for example, heat), so that it can no longer carry out its cellular function

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
A great article from Outside on hyperthermia: https://www.outsideonline.com/2398105/heat-stroke-signs-symptoms
Learn more about the woman who survived the lowest known body temp: https://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/the-woman-who-survived-the-lowest-body-temperature-ever

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176


REFERENCES
**************
Lepock JR (2004). Role of nuclear protein denaturation and aggregation
in thermal radiosensitization, International Journal of Hyperthermia, 20:2, 115-130, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02656730310001637334

Leuenberger, P, Ganscha S, Kahraman A, Cappelletti V, PJ Boersema, Mering Cv, Claassen M, Picotti P (2017). Cell-wide analysis of protein thermal unfolding reveals determinants of thermostability
Science, 355: eaai7825. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/355/6327/eaai7825

Roti Roti J (2008) Cellular responses to hyperthermia (40–46 degrees C): cell killing and molecular events. International Journal of Hyperthermia 24(1): 3–15. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02656730701769841

Sawka MN, Leon LR, Montain SJ, Sonna LA (2011). Integrated physiological mechanisms of exercise performance, adaptation, and maladaptation to heat stress. Comprehensive Physiology 1: 1883-1928. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/cphy.c100082

Slovis CM, Anderson GF, Casolaro A (1982). Survival in a heat stroke victim with a core temperature in excess of 46.5 C. Annals of Emergency Medicine 11(5):269-271. https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0196-0644(82)80099-1

Direct download: Which_Will_Kill_You_First.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 7:56pm EDT

Watch the music video for "The Idea" off the album Music For Scientists: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tUyT94aGmbc
Null results often get a bad rap, sometimes characterized as a study "finding nothing," but there's a lot we can learn from studies whose results fail to support their hypotheses.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Null result: a result in a scientific study that doesn’t support the hypothesis
Premature birth: also known as preterm birth, is a birth that occurs before the 37th week of pregnancy
XENON1T: a highly sensitive experiment to search for direct interactions of dark matter particles. It’s located deep under Italy’s Gran Sasso mountain at the Gran Sasso National Laboratory.

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CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia i Rius (@garirius) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Aldo de Vos (Know Art) | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
The importance of no evidence. Nat Hum Behav 3, 197 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41562-019-0569-7

Jena, A. B. (2017, November 10). 'Null' research findings aren't empty of Meaning. Let's publish them. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://www.statnews.com/2017/11/10/null-research-findings/

Maloni, Judith A. “Lack of evidence for prescription of antepartum bed rest.” Expert review of obstetrics & gynecology vol. 6,4 (2011): 385-393. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3226811/

Matosin N, Frank E, Engel M, Lum JS, Newell KA. Negativity towards negative results: a discussion of the disconnect between scientific worth and scientific culture. Dis Model Mech. 2014 Feb;7(2):171-3. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24713271/

Miller-Halegoua, Suzanne M. “Why null results do not mean no results: negative findings have implications for policy, practice, and research.” Translational behavioral medicine vol. 7,2 (2017): 137. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5526820/

Mlinarić, Ana, Martina Horvat, and Vesna Šupak Smolčić. "Dealing with the positive publication bias: Why you should really publish your negative results." Biochemia medica 27.3 (2017): 447-452. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696751/

W David Crews, Jr, David W Harrison, James W Wright, A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of the effects of dark chocolate and cocoa on variables associated with neuropsychological functioning and cardiovascular health: clinical findings from a sample of healthy, cognitively intact older adults, The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Volume 87, Issue 4, April 2008, Pages 872–880, https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/87.4.872

Zhao, L. (2017, December 29). When null results produce important science. Retrieved March 19, 2021, from https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/observations/when-null-results-produce-important-science/

Direct download: Why_Nothing_Matters_in_Science.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:06pm EDT

Go to https://bit.ly/noom_minuteearth and take your free 30-second quiz! Thank you #noom for sponsoring today’s video!
In order to truly understand differences among animal lifespans, we need to stop thinking about a specific number and start thinking about a distribution.

Check out the MinuteLabs interactive here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/survival-curves/

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life Expectancy At Birth: The average number of years a newborn in a particular group could expect to live.
Life Expectancy After Babyhood: The average number of years a member of a particular group could expect to live given that they had survived their first year.
Maximum Life Expectancy: The age at which the oldest known member of a particular group died.
Mortality Rate: The frequency of occurrence of death within a particular group during a particular time period.
Life Table: A table that shows the number of individuals within a group that survive from one year to the next until they are all dead.
Survivorship Curve: A plot of the data in a particular life table that shows the years on the x-axis and the number or percent of survivors on the y-axis.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ortiz-Ospina, E. (2017). “Life Expectancy” – What does this actually mean?. Our World In Data. Retrieved from: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy-how-is-it-calculated-and-how-should-it-be-interpreted.

Brown JS, Cunningham JJ, Gatenby RA. 2015 The multiple facets of Peto’s paradox: a life-history model for the evolution of cancer suppression. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370: 20140221. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0221

Barbieri, M. (2021). Personal Communication. UC Berkeley Department of Demography. Retrieved from: https://www.site.demog.berkeley.edu/barbieri-profile-page

United Nations. 2019 Revision of World Population Prospects. Retrieved from: https://population.un.org/wpp/

Khan Academy. Life Tables, Survivorship Curves, and Age-Sex Structure. Retrieved from: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/ecology/population-ecology/a/life-tables-survivorship-age-sex-structure

Deevey, E. (1934). Life Tables for Natural Populations of Animals. The Quarterly Review of Biology. 22(4): 283-314. Retrieved from: https://www.journals.uchicago.edu/doi/pdf/10.1086/395888

Direct download: The_Problem_With_Life_Expectancy.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:59pm EDT

To start comparing quotes and simplify insurance-buying check out Policygenius: http://policygenius.com/minuteearth. Thanks to Policygenius for sponsoring this video!
I found a really cool coronavirus illustration that led me to learn about viral attachment and entry.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Virus: a submicroscopic infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of an organism. The study of viruses is known as virology.
Virion: a complete virus particle, and consists of nucleic acid surrounded by a protective coat of protein called a capsid.
Coronaviruses: a group of related RNA viruses that cause diseases in mammals and birds. In humans and birds, they cause respiratory tract infections that can range from mild to lethal and include some cases of the common cold, SARS, MERS, and COVID-19.
SARS-CoV-2: the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the respiratory illness responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic.
Class I fusion proteins: resemble influenza virus hemagglutinin in their structure. Post-fusion, the active site has a trimer of α-helical coiled-coils

Proteins featured in this video:
- SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) Protein
- Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan (HSPG) (Syndecan-4, especifically)
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)
- Furin
- Transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2)

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Coronaviruses 101: Focus on Molecular Virology by Britt Glaunsinger
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8_bOhZd6ieM
Virology Lectures 2021: Attachment and entry by Vincent Racaniello
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7grtc4k1fhg
Building a visual consensus model of the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle
https://animationlab.utah.edu/cova

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Ever Salazar | Script Writer, Narrator, Director, and Illustrator
Aldo de Vos (Know Art) | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
*****************
SARS-CoV-2 Fusion, 2020 - Illustration by David S. Goodsell, RCSB Protein Data Bank; doi: 10.2210/rcsb_pdb/goodsell-gallery-026
http://pdb101.rcsb.org/sci-art/goodsell-gallery/sars-cov-2-fusion
Coronavirus outbreak (covid 19) explained through 3D Medical Animation - Video by scientificanimations.com
https://youtu.be/I-Yd-_XIWJg?t=208
Coronavirus, Explained: This Pandemic - Video by Netflix
https://www.netflix.com/title/81273378
How the Coronavirus Hijacks Your Cells - Video by Bloomberg Quicktake
https://youtu.be/4S3DXXtRZZg?t=128
Ink Drop/Drip in water - Video by CyberWebFX
https://www.youtube.com/c/CyberWebFX

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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Afzelius, B. (1994). Ultrastructure of human nasal epithelium during an episode of coronavirus infection. Virchows Archiv 424:295-300

Bestle, D., Heindl, M., Limburg, H., et all (2020). TMPRSS2 and furin are both essential for proteolytic activation of SARS-CoV-2 in human airway cells. doi: 10.26508/lsa.202000786

Buijsers B., et al (2020) Increased Plasma Heparanase Activity in COVID-19 Patients. Front. Immunol. 11:575047. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.575047

Casalino, L., et al (2020). Beyond Shielding: The Roles of Glycans in the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein
ACS Central Science 2020 6 (10), 1722-1734. doi: 10.1021/acscentsci.0c01056

Clausen, T. M., et al (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection Depends on Cellular Heparan Sulfate and ACE2. Cell Volume 183, Issue 4, Pages 1043-1057.e15. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.033

Elenius, K & Jalkanen, M. (1994). Function of the syndecans - a family of cell surface proteoglycans. Journal of Cell Science 107, 2975-2982

Shang, J. et al (2020). Cell entry mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2. PNAS May 26, 2020 117 (21) 11727-11734. doi: 10.1073/pnas.2003138117

Thomas, G. (2002). Furin at the cutting edge: From protein traffic to embryogenesis and disease. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2002 October; 3(10): 753–766

Zhang, Q., et al (2020). Heparan sulfate assists SARS-CoV-2 in cell entry and can be targeted by approved drugs in vitro. Cell Discovery (2020) 6:80. doi: 10.1038/s41421-020-00222-5

Direct download: I_found_the_BEST_coronavirus_depiction__explanation.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:38pm EDT

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Different dogs look incredibly different - but that doesn't mean they are necessarily more diverse.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
phenotypic diversity - the range of different observable traits in a certain organism - for example, size, color, strength, and friendliness.
genetic diversity - the variation in the genetic information within and among individuals of a population or species
artificial selection (or selective breeding) - a process used by humans to develop new organisms with desirable characteristics

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Hedrick P. & Andersson L. (2011) Are dogs genetically special? Heredity 106: 712–713. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3186234/

Lampi S. et al. (2020) Variation in breeding practices and geographic isolation drive subpopulation differentiation, contributing to the loss of genetic diversity within dog breed lineages. Canine Medicine and Genetics 7(1): 1-10. https://cgejournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40575-020-00085-9

Lyons L. (2009) Recent advances in cat genetics. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, Volume 4. https://ucdavis.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/recent-advances-in-cat-genetics

Menotti-Raymond M. et al. (2008) Patterns of molecular genetic variation among cat breeds. Genomics 91(1): 1-11. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0888754307002078?via%3Dihub

Ostrander E. & Wayne R. (2005) The canine genome. Genome Research 15(12):1706-16. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16339369/

Parker H. et al. (2004) Genetic structure of the purebred domestic dog. Science 304: 1160–4. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/304/5674/1160

Plassais J. et al. (2019) Whole genome sequencing of canids reveals genomic regions under selection and variants influencing morphology. Nature Communications 10. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-019-09373-w

Direct download: Dogs_vs_Cats_The_Diversity_Paradox.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:33am EDT

You can read Bill & Melinda Gates' 2021 letter at http://gatesnot.es/3opAPWK
Certain cognitive biases cause humans to make unsafe decisions in a pandemic, making a terrible disease even worse.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Pandemic: A disease outbreak that spreads across the world.
Exponential Growth: Growth that occurs when a value increases in proportion to its current value.
Exponential Growth Prediction Bias: An error in prediction that occurs when people underestimate how quickly numbers rise in an exponential system.
Optimism Bias: An error that occurs when people underestimate their personal likelihood of experiencing a negative event.
Hyperbolic Time Discounting Bias: An error that occurs when people choose smaller rewards in the present over larger awards in the future.
Reactance Psychology: An unpleasant motivational state that occurs when a freedom is threatened with elimination.
Individualism: The principle of being independent and self-reliant.
Collectivism: The principle of giving a group priority over each individual in it.
Disinformation: Deliberately false information designed to deceive.

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Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ritwik Banerjee, Joydeep Bhattacharya, Priyama Majumdar (2021). Exponential-growth prediction bias and compliance with safety measures related to COVID-19. Social Science & Medicine, 268. Retrieved from:https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277953620306924?via%3Dihub.

IHME COVID-19 Forecasting Team., Reiner, R.C., Barber, R.M. et al. (2020). Modeling COVID-19 scenarios for the United States. Nat Med 27, 94–105. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41591-020-1132-9.

Steindl, C., Jonas, E., Sittenthaler, S., Traut-Mattausch, E., & Greenberg, J. (2015). Understanding Psychological Reactance: New Developments and Findings. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie, 223(4), 205–214. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1027/2151-2604/a000222

Joris Lammers, Jan Crusius, and Anne Gast. (2020). Correcting misperceptions of exponential coronavirus growth increases support for social distancing.PNAS. 117:8. Retrieved from:
https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/117/28/16264.full.pdf.

Alan, M., Marco, M. (2020). How Your Brain Tricks You Into Taking Risks During the Pandemic. ProPublica. Retrieved from: https://www.propublica.org/article/how-your-brain-tricks-you-into-taking-risks-during-the-pandemic/.

Bottemanne Hugo, Morlaàs Orphée, Fossati Philippe, Schmidt Liane. (2020). Does the Coronavirus Epidemic Take Advantage of Human Optimism Bias? Frontiers in Psychology. 11. Retrieved from: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.02001/full

Soofi, M., Najafi, F. & Karami-Matin, B. (2020). Using Insights from Behavioral Economics to Mitigate the Spread of COVID-19. Appl Health Econ Health Policy 18, 345–350. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40258-020-00595-4

Direct download: Four_Reasons_Our_Brains_Suck_At_Pandemics.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:23pm EDT

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Under the right conditions, wildfires can form clouds and generate firestorms, which last far longer than normal thunderstorms.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Pyrocumulonimbus cloud - a type of cumulonimbus cloud that forms that forms above wildfires and even volcanic eruptions, which can create thunderstorms
Virga - rain that evaporates before it hits the ground
Updraft - upward moving air in a thunderstorm
Downdraft - downward moving air in a thunderstorm

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Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
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Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

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REFERENCES
**************
Andreae, Meinrat O., et al. "Smoking rain clouds over the Amazon." science 303.5662 (2004): 1337-1342. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/303/5662/1337.abstract
Dowdy, Andrew J., Michael D. Fromm, and Nicholas McCarthy. "Pyrocumulonimbus lightning and fire ignition on Black Saturday in southeast Australia." Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres 122.14 (2017): 7342-7354. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/2017JD026577
Dowdy, Andrew J., et al. "Future changes in extreme weather and pyroconvection risk factors for Australian wildfires." Scientific reports 9.1 (2019): 1-11. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-46362-x
McKeever, A. (2020, September 24). Fire clouds and fire tornadoes: How wildfires spawn extreme weather. Retrieved January 30, 2021, from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/natural-disasters/pyrocumulonimbus-clouds-fire-tornadoes-how-wildfires-spawn-extreme-weather/
Ndalila, Mercy N., et al. "Evolution of a pyrocumulonimbus event associated with an extreme wildfire in Tasmania, Australia." Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences 20.5 (2020): 1497-1511. https://nhess.copernicus.org/articles/20/1497/2020/
Peterson, David A., et al. "Wildfire-driven thunderstorms cause a volcano-like stratospheric injection of smoke." NPJ climate and atmospheric science 1.1 (2018): 1-8. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41612-018-0039-3

Direct download: How_Wildfires_Generate_Relentless_Storms.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:30pm EDT

Check out Terra Mater’s new video about the Skywalker Gibbon - and subscribe - at https://youtube.com/terramaterofficial.
Most new species are discovered by amateurs because nowadays non-professionals are actually better suited to the requirements of new species “discovery.”

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Taxonomy: The branch of science concerned with classifying organisms
Taxonomic Impediment: The gaps in our taxonomic knowledge and the shortage of trained taxonomists and curators.
Amateur Taxonomist: Someone who classifies organisms but is not paid to do so.
Malacology: The study of mollusks, including snails and slugs.
Type Specimen: The specimen used to officially describe a new species.

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Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
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David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Fontaine, B., van Achterberg, K., Alonso-Zarazaga, M. A., Araujo, R., Asche, M., Aspöck, H., Aspöck, U., Audisio, P., Aukema, B., Bailly, N., Balsamo, M., Bank, R. A., Belfiore, C., Bogdanowicz, W., Boxshall, G., Burckhardt, D., Chylarecki, P., Deharveng, L., Dubois, A., Enghoff, H., … Bouchet, P. (2012). New species in the Old World: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy. PloS one, 7(5), e36881. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0036881.

Mora C, Tittensor DP, Adl S, Simpson AGB, Worm B. (2011). How Many Species Are There on Earth and in the Ocean? PLOS Biology 9(8): e1001127. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1001127.

Drew, L. (2011). Are We Losing the Science of Taxonomy? As need grows, numbers and training are failing to keep up., BioScience, 61:12 (942–946). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.12.4.

Pearson, D., Hamilton, A., Erwin, T. (2011). Recovery Plan for the Endangered Taxonomy Profession. BioScience. 61:1 (58–63). Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1525/bio.2011.61.1.11.

Agnarsson I, Kuntner M. (2007). Taxonomy in a changing world: seeking solutions for a science in crisis. Syst Biol.56(3):531-9. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17562477/.

Warren, R. (2019). The New Publish or Perish: Requirements for Jobs and Tenure. ASA Footnotes. $7:1. Retrieved from: https://www.asanet.org/sites/default/files/attach/footnotes/footnotes_jan-feb-19.pdf

Leber, J. (2019). Species Sleuths: Amateur Naturalists Spark a New Wave of Discovery. Yale Environment 360. Retrieved from: https://e360.yale.edu/features/field-sleuths-the-amateur-naturalists-who-are-discovering-new-species

Nuwer, R. (2013). A Rallying Cry For Naming All Species On Earth. New York Times. Retrieved from: https://green.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/24/a-rallying-cry-for-naming-all-species-on-earth/

Fraussen, Koen. Personal Communication (2020). Bus Driver, Public Transport Company, Flanders, Belgium. https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5&q=author%3A%22Fraussen+Koen%22&btnG=&oq=frauss

Mora, Camilo. Personal Communication (2020). Associate Professor, Department of Geography and Environment, University of Hawaii. http://www.soc.hawaii.edu/mora/index.html

Direct download: Why_Most_New_Species_Are_Discovered_By_Amateurs.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:18pm EDT

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For some birds, trying to cheat your neighbors into raising your babies is just as much work - and is no more successful - than doing it yourself.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Life history strategy: How organisms allocate energy usage to maximize offspring.
Parental Investment: Any non-genetic contributions by parents to help their offspring survive.
Brood Parasites: Organisms that rely on others to raise their young.
Mafia Behavior: The practice of repeatedly visiting victims to make sure they are complying.
Fecundity: The number of offspring produced by an individual over time.

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CREDITS
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Cameron Duke | Script Writer
David Goldenberg | Editor and Narrator
Henry Reich | Director
Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176


REFERENCES
**************
Antonson, Nick. (2020). Personal Communication. School of Integrative Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

Bibby, C. J. (1978). Some breeding statistics of Reed and Sedge Warblers. Bird Study, 25(4), 207–222. https://doi.org/10.1080/00063657809476599

Davies, N. B., & Brooke, M. D. L. (1989). An Experimental Study of Co-Evolution between the Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, and its Hosts. II. Host Egg Markings, Chick Discrimination and General Discussion. Journal of Animal Ecology, 58(1), 225–236. https://doi.org/10.2307/4996

Fecundity of the Brown-Headed Cowbird in Southern Ontario on JSTOR. (2020). Jstor.org. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4085739?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Graveland, J. (1999). Effects of Reed Cutting on Density and Breeding Success of Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpacaeus and Sedge Warbler A. schoenobaenus. Journal of Avian Biology, 30(4), 469. https://doi.org/10.2307/3677019

Hoover, J. P., & Robinson, S. K. (2007). Retaliatory mafia behavior by a parasitic cowbird favors host acceptance of parasitic eggs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(11), 4479–4483. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0609710104

Kilner, R. M. (2003). How selfish is a cowbird nestling? Animal Behaviour, 66(3), 569–576. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.2003.2204

Krüger, O. (2006). Cuckoos, cowbirds and hosts: adaptations, trade-offs and constraints. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 362(1486), 1873–1886. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2006.1849

Long, R. (1975). Mortality of Reed Warblers in Jersey. Ringing & Migration, 1(1), 28–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/03078698.1975.9673695

Oddmund Kleven, Arne Moksnes, Eivin Røskaft, & Honza, M. (2004, August 26). Breeding success of common cuckoos Cuculus canorus parasitising four sympatric species of Acrocephalus... ResearchGate; Wiley. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230023528_Breeding_success_of_common_cuckoos_Cuculus_canorus_parasitising_four_sympatric_species_of_Acrocephalus_warblers

The Ecology of Avian Brood Parasitism | Learn Science at Scitable. (2010). Nature.com. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-ecology-of-avian-brood-parasitism-14724491/#:~:text=Avian%20brood%20parasitism%2C%20or%20the,the%20host%20(Davies%202000)

Direct download: Does_It_Pay_To_Cheat.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:32am EDT

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The amount of metal some special plants are able to take up from the soil would be toxic enough to an average plant to kill it several times over.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Hyperaccumulator: a plant capable of growing in metalliferous soils and to accumulate extraordinarily high amounts of heavy metals, far in excess of the levels found in the majority of species, without suffering toxic effects
Phytoremediation: the treatment of pollutants or waste (as in contaminated soil or groundwater) by the use of green plants that remove, degrade, or stabilize the undesirable substances (such as toxic metals)
Phytomining: the planting (and subsequent harvesting) of vegetation that will selectively concentrate specific metals from the soil into their tissues
Euhalophytes: highly salt-tolerant plants capable of diluting salt within their succulent leaves or stems
Active transport: the process of transferring substances against a concentration gradient into, out of, and between cells, using energy

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Read about a farm that is harvesting nickel-hoarding plants profitably: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/26/science/metal-plants-farm.html

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CREDITS
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Julián Gustavo Gómez (@TheJulianGomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
*****************
Thank you to Dr. Hendrik Küpper for his expert consultation on the script!

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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Andresen, Elisa, Edgar Peiter, and Hendrik Küpper. "Trace metal metabolism in plants." Journal of Experimental Botany 69.5 (2018): 909-954. https://academic.oup.com/jxb/article/69/5/909/4855954

Bouman, Roderick, et al. "Phyllanthus rufuschaneyi: a new nickel hyperaccumulator from Sabah (Borneo Island) with potential for tropical agromining." Botanical studies 59.1 (2018): 9. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40529-018-0225-y

Brooks, Robert R., et al. "Phytomining." Trends in plant science 3.9 (1998): 359-362. https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/comments/S1360-1385(98)01283-7

Chrispeels, Maarten J., Nigel M. Crawford, and Julian I. Schroeder. "Proteins for transport of water and mineral nutrients across the membranes of plant cells." The Plant Cell 11.4 (1999): 661-675. http://www.plantcell.org/content/11/4/661

Favas, Paulo JC, et al. "Phytoremediation of soils contaminated with metals and metalloids at mining areas: potential of native flora." Environmental risk assessment of soil contamination 3 (2014): 485-516. https://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/46355.pdf

Morgan, J. B. & Connolly, E. L. (2013) Plant-Soil Interactions: Nutrient Uptake. Nature Education Knowledge 4(8):2 https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/plant-soil-interactions-nutrient-uptake-105289112/

Morrissey, Joe, and Mary Lou Guerinot. "Trace elements: too little or too much and how plants cope." F1000 biology reports 1 (2009). https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2920677/

Rascio, Nicoletta, and Flavia Navari-Izzo. "Heavy metal hyperaccumulating plants: how and why do they do it? And what makes them so interesting?." Plant science 180.2 (2011): 169-181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.08.016

Song, Jie, and Baoshan Wang. "Using euhalophytes to understand salt tolerance and to develop saline agriculture: Suaeda salsa as a promising model." Annals of Botany 115.3 (2015): 541-553. http://europepmc.org/backend/ptpmcrender.fcgi?accid=PMC4332605&blobtype=pdf

Yuan, Fang, et al. "Beneficial Effects of Salt on Halophyte Growth: Morphology, Cells, and Genes." Open Life Sciences 14.1 (2019): 191-200. https://www.degruyter.com/view/journals/biol/14/1/article-p191.xml

Direct download: The_Plant_Thats_Full_Of_Metal.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 7:40pm EDT

Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula!
There’s lots of debate as to which original starter Pokémon is the best fighter among squirtle, bulbasaur, charmander, and pikachu, but only one is the most biologically plausible.

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To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Convergent evolution: the process whereby organisms not closely related (not monophyletic), independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches.

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Satirical scientific article about pikachu: https://www.scq.ubc.ca/upregulated-membrane-expression-of-a-conserved-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-nav1-4a-and-electrical-organ-discharge-in-electric-mouse-p-pikachu/


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CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
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Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176


REFERENCES
**************
Bels, V. L., J. Davenport, and S. Renous. "Drinking and water expulsion in the diamondback turtle Malaclemys terrapin." Journal of Zoology 236.3 (1995): 483-497. Gallant, Jason R., et al. "Genomic basis for the convergent evolution of electric organs." Science 344.6191 (2014): 1522-1525.

Hultgren, K. M., et al. "Camouflage in decorator crabs: integrating ecological, behavioural and evolutionary approaches." Animal camouflage (2011): 214-229.

Lewis, Danny. “This Is How Bombardier Beetles Fire Explosives From Their Butts.” Smithsonian.com, Smithsonian Institution, 5 May 2015, www.smithsonianmag.com/smart-news/machine-gun-bug-180955150.

Quirós, Gabriela. “Decorator Crabs Make High Fashion at Low Tide.” KQED, 9 May 2017, www.kqed.org/science/1602625/decorator-crabs-make-high-fashion-at-low-tide.

Wanninger, Marion, Thomas Schwaha, and Egon Heiss. "Form and Function of the skin glands in the Himalayan newt Tylototriton verrucosus." Zoological Letters 4.1 (2018): 15.

Direct download: The_Best_Pokemon_According_to_Science.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:07pm EDT

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Burning a marshmallow can release more energy than detonating an equal mass of TNT...so why isn't a marshmallow as dangerous?

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**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Chemical reaction: a process that involves rearrangement of the molecular or ionic structure of a substance
Exothermic reaction: a reaction that releases energy
Stoichiometry: a section of chemistry that involves using relationships between reactants and/or products in a chemical reaction to determine desired quantitative data
Reaction rate or rate of reaction: the speed at which a chemical reaction takes place

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CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Brown, B.S. (1979) What does the kilojoule look like? Biochemical Education 7, 88-89. https://iubmb.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1016/0307-4412(79)90070-0

Kinney GF, Graham KJ. (1985) Explosives shocks in air, Second edition, Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-86682-1

Munroe, C and Howell, S. (1920) Products of Detonation of TNT. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. Vol. 59, No. 3, pp. 195. https://www.jstor.org/stable/984499?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents

Tinnesand, M. 'Sugar, An Unusual Explosive', Chemmatters, December 2010. https://www.acs.org/content/dam/acsorg/education/resources/highschool/chemmatters/archive/chemmatters-december-2010-sugar-an-unusual-explosive.pdf

Sochet, I. (2010). Blast effects of external explosions. Eighth International Symposium on Hazards, Prevention, and Mitigation of Industrial Explosions, Yokohama, Japan. https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00629253

Direct download: Dangerous_Marshmallows.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 7:54pm EDT

Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula!

We've all experienced thunder, but what ARE all those claps, booms, and rumbles?

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Shock wave: a sharp change of pressure in a narrow region traveling through a medium, especially air, caused by explosion or by a body moving faster than sound

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
*****************
“thunder3.ogg” by Josh74000MC of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/Josh74000MC/sounds/475094/
“Drythunder1.wav” by juskiddink of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/juskiddink/sounds/101933/
“Thunder-rain-middle-distance.wav” by ragamuffin of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/ragamuffin/sounds/197738/
“Thunder.rumble.ogg” by xUMR of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/xUMR/sounds/486557/
“Rain, moderate, b.wav” by InspectorJ of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/401276/
“Electric-gas-stove-ignite.wav” by squidocto of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/Squidocto/sounds/262582/
“Breaking the sound barrier” by thenudo of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/thenudo/sounds/134829/
“Whip crack b.wav” by cetsoundcrew of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/cetsoundcrew/sounds/397662/
“Party Pack, Balloons, Popping, 02-01.wav" by InspectorJ of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/484268/

OUR LINKS
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Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Blanco, F., La Rocca, P., Petta, C. and Riggi, F. (2009) Modelling Digital Thunder. European Journal of Physics 30: 139–45. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0143-0807/30/1/014

Depasse, P. (1994) Lightning acoustic signature. Journal of Geophysics Research 99: 25933–25940. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/94JD01986

Jagadeesh, G. (2008) Fascinating world of shock waves. Resonance 13: 752–767. https://www.ias.ac.in/public/Volumes/reso/013/08/0752-0767.pdf

Matson, W.R. (2018) Sonic Thunder: a Discussion of Natural and Artificial Shock Waves. Morgan and Claypool Publishers.

Sidath, A., Bodhika, J.A.P., Mahendra, F. (2016). Frequency Analysis of Thunder Features. Proceedings of International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309982045_Frequency_Analysis_of_Thunder_Features

Direct download: The_Morbid_Science_of_Roadkill.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:39pm EDT

Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula!

We've all experienced thunder, but what ARE all those claps, booms, and rumbles?

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Shock wave: a sharp change of pressure in a narrow region traveling through a medium, especially air, caused by explosion or by a body moving faster than sound

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OTHER CREDITS
*****************
“thunder3.ogg” by Josh74000MC of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/Josh74000MC/sounds/475094/
“Drythunder1.wav” by juskiddink of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/juskiddink/sounds/101933/
“Thunder-rain-middle-distance.wav” by ragamuffin of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/ragamuffin/sounds/197738/
“Thunder.rumble.ogg” by xUMR of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/xUMR/sounds/486557/
“Rain, moderate, b.wav” by InspectorJ of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/401276/
“Electric-gas-stove-ignite.wav” by squidocto of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/Squidocto/sounds/262582/
“Breaking the sound barrier” by thenudo of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/thenudo/sounds/134829/
“Whip crack b.wav” by cetsoundcrew of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/cetsoundcrew/sounds/397662/
“Party Pack, Balloons, Popping, 02-01.wav" by InspectorJ of freesound.org
https://freesound.org/people/InspectorJ/sounds/484268/

OUR LINKS
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Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
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Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Blanco, F., La Rocca, P., Petta, C. and Riggi, F. (2009) Modelling Digital Thunder. European Journal of Physics 30: 139–45. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0143-0807/30/1/014

Depasse, P. (1994) Lightning acoustic signature. Journal of Geophysics Research 99: 25933–25940. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1029/94JD01986

Jagadeesh, G. (2008) Fascinating world of shock waves. Resonance 13: 752–767. https://www.ias.ac.in/public/Volumes/reso/013/08/0752-0767.pdf

Matson, W.R. (2018) Sonic Thunder: a Discussion of Natural and Artificial Shock Waves. Morgan and Claypool Publishers.

Sidath, A., Bodhika, J.A.P., Mahendra, F. (2016). Frequency Analysis of Thunder Features. Proceedings of International Conference on Lightning Protection (ICLP). https://www.researchgate.net/publication/309982045_Frequency_Analysis_of_Thunder_Features

Direct download: Why_Doesnt_All_Thunder_Sound_The_Same.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:38pm EDT

Thanks to OIST for sponsoring this video. To learn more, visit https://admissions.oist.jp/

The lab-on-a-stick that lets us know if we’re pregnant is a genius bit of technology that can be used to quickly determine everything from whether there are nuts in our chocolate to whether we have COVID.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Early Pregnancy Test: A simple lateral flow assay that tests for the presence of a particular hormone in urine.
Lateral Flow Assay: Simple tests in which a liquid sample is run along the surface of a pad using capillary action and colored antibodies to show a visual positive or negative result.
Capillary Action: The movement of water-based liquids within small tubes due to the forces of cohesion, adhesion, and surface tension.
Antibody: A blood protein produced by the immune system in response to a particular antigen.
Antigen: A foreign substance which produces an immune response within the body.
False positive: A result produced that falsely indicates a particular antigen is present.
False negative: A result produced that falsely indicates that a particular antigen is absent.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Koczula, K., and Gallotta, A. (2016) Lateral Flow Assays. Essays in Biochemistry, 60: 111-120. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4986465/.

Seo, K., Holt, P., Stone, H. and Gast, R. (2003). Simple and rapid methods for detecting Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 87: 139-144. Retrieved from: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12927716/.

Bishop, J., Hsieh, H., Gasperino, D., and Weigl, B. (2019). (1997). Sensitivity enhancement in lateral flow assays: a systems perspective. Lab On A Chip, 19: 2486-2499. Retrieved from: https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2019/lc/c9lc00104b#!divAbstract.

O’Farrell, B. (2008). Evolution in Lateral Flow–Based Immunoassay Systems. Nature Public Health Emergency Collection. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7119943/

Collins, F. (2020). Charting a Rapid Course Toward Better COVID-19 Tests and Treatments. NIH Director’s Blog. Retrieved from: https://directorsblog.nih.gov/2020/08/06/charting-a-rapid-course-toward-better-covid-19-tests-and-treatments/

Shen, A. Personal Communication (2020). Director, Micro/Bio/Nanofluidics Unit at Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology. https://groups.oist.jp/mbnu

Direct download: Can_Pregnancy_Tests_Help_Beat_The_Pandemic.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:17pm EDT

Use the promo code "minuteearth" at https://curiositystream.com/minuteearth for 26% off an annual subscription to CuriosityStream, plus access to Nebula!

Not all hardwood trees have hard wood and softwoods soft wood, because these terms denote their taxonomic ancestry, not the wood's actual hardness.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Angiosperm: a plant that has flowers and produces seeds enclosed within a carpel.
Gymnosperm: a plant that has seeds unprotected by an ovary or fruit.

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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CREDITS
*********
Julián Gustavo Gómez | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Josh Taira | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Ever Salazar | Audio Editing
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida


OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Ansell, M. P. "Wood microstructure–A cellular composite." Wood Composites. Woodhead Publishing, 2015. 3-26. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-78242-454-3.00001-9

Bjurhager, Ingela. Effects of Cell Wall Structure on Tensile Properties of Hardwood: Effect of down-regulation of lignin on mechanical performance of transgenic hybrid aspen. Diss. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2011. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:409533/FULLTEXT02.pdf

Botes, Christo, Steven D. Johnson, and Richard M. Cowling. "The birds and the bees: using selective exclusion to identify effective pollinators of African tree aloes." International Journal of Plant Sciences 170.2 (2009): 151-156.

Butterfield B.G. (1993) The structure of wood: an overview. In: Primary Wood Processing. Springer, Dordrecht. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-015-8110-3_1

Chilson-Parks, Laura. "Wood in the Middle Ages." Perspectives (2015). https://risdmuseum.org/art-design/projects-publications/articles/wood-middle-ages

Cywa, K. Trees and shrubs used in medieval Poland for making everyday objects. Veget Hist Archaeobot 27, 111–136 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00334-017-0644-9

Laboratory, Forest Products. Wood Handbook: Wood As an Engineering Material. United States, CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2013.

Meier, Eric. “Hardwood Anatomy.” The Wood Database, https://www.wood-database.com/wood-articles/hardwood-anatomy/.

Minea, Vasile. Industrial Heat Pump-Assisted Wood Drying. United States, CRC Press, 2018.

Plomion, Christophe, Grégoire Leprovost, and Alexia Stokes. "Wood formation in trees." Plant physiology 127.4 (2001): 1513-1523.

Ramage, Michael H., et al. "The wood from the trees: The use of timber in construction." Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 68 (2017): 333-359.

Simm, Jonathan, and Crossman, Matt. Manual on the Use of Timber in Coastal and River Engineering. United Kingdom, Thomas Telford, 2004.

Wei-Dan Ding , Ahmed Koubaa , et al. (2008)
Relationship between wood porosity, wood density and methyl methacrylate impregnation rate, Wood Material Science &
Engineering, 3:1-2, 62-70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17480270802607947

Wiedenhoeft, Alex. "Structure and function of wood." Wood handbook: wood as an engineering material: chapter 3. Centennial ed. General technical report FPL; GTR-190. Madison, WI: US Dept. of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010: p. 3.1-3.18. 190 (2010): 3-1. https://www.fpl.fs.fed.us/documnts/fplgtr/fplgtr190/chapter_03.pdf

WOOD Magazine Staff. “What Is the World's Hardest Wood?” WOOD Magazine, WOOD Magazine, 17 Jan. 2019, https://www.woodmagazine.com/wood-supplies/wood-species/what-is-the-worlds-hardest-wood.

Direct download: Why_Hardwoods_Are_The_Softest_Woods.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:29pm EDT

Use the discount code “MINUTEEARTH” to get 10% off your game of Telestrations at https://theop.games/minuteearth

Here’s what happened when more than a dozen of our favorite channels got together to blindly make a video with one another.

0:00 - Intro
1:14 - Kate & Ever | MinuteEarth
1:49 - Henry | MinuteEarth | MinutePhysics https://youtube.com/MinutePhysics
2:30 - Sarah | MinuteEarth
3:11 - Arcadi | MinuteEarth | Gastrofísica https://youtube.com/tippetopphysics
3:56 - Grant | 3Blue1Brown https://youtube.com/3blue1brown
4:42 - Dianna | Physics Girl https://youtube.com/PhysicsGirl
5:22 - Osmosis https://youtube.com/Osmosis
6:03 - Tom Scott https://youtube.com/TomScottGo
6:40 - Scishow https://youtube.com/SciShow
7:17 - Mithuna | Looking Glass Universe https://youtube.com/LookingGlassUniverse
7:47 - Stephen | Welch Labs https://youtube.com/WelchLabsVideo
8:17 - Vanessa | BrainCraft https://youtube.com/BrainCraftVideo
8:48 - Patch | TierZoo https://youtube.com/TierZoo
9:21 - Jabril | Jabrils https://youtube.com/Jabrils
10:03 - Danielle | Animalogic https://youtube.com/Animalogic
10:45 - Joe | It's Okay to be Smart https://youtube.com/itsokaytobesmart
11:17 - About Telestrations
11:52 - Our Favorite Reactions
14:49 - Outro

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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CREDITS
*********
This video was produced by:
David Goldenberg | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman and Ever Salazar | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

Direct download: The_Miscommunication_Game_Ft._15_other_channels.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:42pm EDT

Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org

Sounds in the ocean can travel more than 10,000 miles - that's halfway around the world! Here's how.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Refraction: the bending of a sound wave based on changes in the wave's speed

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
This video was produced by:
Kate Yoshida | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Arcadi Garcia Rius | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

OUR STAFF
************
Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Heaney, K.D., Kuperman, W.A., and McDonald, B. E. (1960). Perth-Bermuda sound propagation: Adiabatic mode interpretation. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 90, 2586–2594, 1991. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.402062

Munk, W.H, Spindel, R.C., Baggeroer, A., Birdsall, T. G. (1994). The Heard Island Feasibility Test, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 96, 2330–2342. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.410105

Payne, R. S., and Webb, D. (1971). Orientation by means of long range acoustic signaling in baleen whales. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 188:110–141. https://www.thecre.com/sefReports/wp-content/uploads/2012/12/Payne-R.-Webb-D.-1971.-Orientation.pdf

Shockley, R. C., Northrop, J., Hansen, P. G. Hartdegen, C. (1982) SOFAR propagation paths from Australia to Bermuda: Comparision of signal speed algorithms and experiments, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 71, 51–60. https://asa.scitation.org/doi/10.1121/1.387250

Direct download: How_To_Hear_Halfway_Around_The_World.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:28pm EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2

There’s a huge seasonal difference in death rates that is propelled by a variety of factors including pathogen behavior and anatomical response to temperature changes.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Crude Death Rate: The number of people in a population of a 1,000 who die every year. The 2020 rate for the entire world is roughly 8.

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
CGP Grey takes you through the first half of Death's day: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QMNGEY8OZqo

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
**************************
If you like what we do, you can help us!:
- Become our patron: https://patreon.com/MinuteEarth
- Share this video with your friends and family
- Leave us a comment (we read them!)

CREDITS
*********
This video was produced by:
David Goldenberg | Script Writer
Julián Gustavo Gómez | Narrator
Irene Crisologo | Illustrator
Ever Salazar | Animator and Director
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

Feedback on drafts by:
Julián Gustavo Gómez, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich
Peter Reich • Ever Salazar • Kate Yoshida

OUR LINKS
************
Youtube | https://youtube.com/MinuteEarth
TikTok | https://tiktok.com/@minuteearth
Twitter | https://twitter.com/MinuteEarth
Instagram | https://instagram.com/minute_earth
Facebook | https://facebook.com/Minuteearth

Website | https://minuteearth.com
Apple Podcasts| https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/minuteearth/id649211176

REFERENCES
**************
Robbie M Parks, James E Bennett, Kyle J Foreman, Ralf Toumi, Majid Ezzati (2018). National and regional seasonal dynamics of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the USA from 1980 to 2016. eLife 2018;7:e35500. Retrieved from: https://elifesciences.org/articles/35500.

Roland Rau, Christina Bohk-Ewald, Magdalena M. Muszyńska, James W. Vaupel (2017). Seasonality of Causes of Death. Chapter in: Visualizing Mortality Dynamics in the Lexis Diagram. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-64820-0_9.

Dimitrios Seretakis; Pagona Lagiou, MD; Loren Lipworth, DSc; et al (1997). Changing Seasonality of Mortality From Coronary Heart Disease. JAMA, 278(12):1012-1014. Retrieved from: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/article-abstract/418241.

W. R. Keatinge (2002) Winter mortality and its causes, International Journal of
Circumpolar Health, 61:4, 292-299. Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.3402/ijch.v61i4.17477

Average Daily Number of Deaths,* by Month — United States, 2017. Retrieved from: https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/volumes/68/wr/mm6826a5.htm.

Direct download: Why_Youre_More_Likely_To_Die_In_Winter.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:10pm EDT

Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/

Some aquarium hobbyists will pay $10,000 or more for a single shrimp because of the rarity of their colors or patterns.

LEARN MORE
**************
To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Chromatophores: pigment-containing cells in the deeper layers of the skin of animals like shrimp
Restricted availability theory: a commodity is available or perceived to be available only for certain individuals
Reactance theory: unavailability of a commodity is perceived as a threat to an individual’s freedom to posses that commodity, making it more desirable.
Scarcity heuristic: a mental shortcut that places value on items based on how easy it is to miss out on them.

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Check out this Taiwanese news broadcast about fancy shrimp breeding: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxjUEhryDEA

SUPPORT MINUTEEARTH
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CREDITS
*********
This video was produced by:
Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

Feedback on drafts by:
David Goldenberg, Alex Reich, Henry Reich, Peter Reich, Ever Salazar and Kate Yoshida

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC
https://neptunestudios.info

Henry Reich | Executive Producer
David Goldenberg | Production Manager
Melissa Hayes | Business & Legal Counsel
Kate Yoshida | Chief Editor
Ever Salazar | Creative Director
Julián Gustavo Gómez | Community Manager

OTHER CREDITS
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White Painted (Kai Bai) Shrimp photo by Demin Wong
Blue Bolt Shrimp photo by Jeffrey Kelley

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REFERENCES
**************
Bauer, R. T. "Color patterns of the shrimps Heptacarpus pictus and H. paludicola (Caridea: Hippolytidae)." Marine Biology 64.2 (1981): 141-152.

John, Maria, et al. "The preference for scarcity: A developmental and comparative perspective." Psychology & Marketing 35.8 (2018): 603-615.

Lukhaup, Chris. “Freshwater Shrimps: The next Generation.” Practical Fishkeeping, 14 May 2019, www.practicalfishkeeping.co.uk/features/freshwater-shrimps-the-next-generation/.

Lynn, Michael. "The psychology of unavailability: Explaining scarcity and cost effects on value." Basic and Applied Social Psychology 13.1 (1992): 3-7.

Verhallen, Theo MM, and Henry SJ Robben. "Unavailability and the evaluation of goods." KYKLOS-BERNE- 48 (1995): 369-369.

Direct download: The_Worlds_Most_Expensive_Shrimp_10k.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:53pm EDT

Find out more about our sewers from the In Deep podcast at https://www.indeep.org.

The old combined sewer systems of many major cities are no match for modern storms and impermeable surfaces.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Combined Sewer System: Sewers designed to collect domestic sewage and storm runoff in the same wastewater pipe.
Wastewater Treatment Plant: A facility that filters and cleans wastewater before sending it into nearby waterways.
Combined Sewer Overflow: When the wastewater in a combined sewer system exceeds a certain limit, it bypasses the wastewater treatment plant and goes directly into nearby waterways.
Extreme Rainfall: Storms that cause the wettest days of the year in a particular geographic area.
Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm.
Deep Tunnel Project: A $3 billion civil engineering megaproject designed to reduce flooding in the metropolitan Chicago area.
_________________________________________
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___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Narrator, and Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Kate Yoshida, Sarah Berman

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Tibbets, J. (2005). Combined Sewer Systems: Down, Dirty, and Out of Date. Environmental Health Perspectives. 113(7): A464–A467. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1257666/.

Olds HT, Corsi SR, Dila DK, Halmo KM, Bootsma MJ, McLellan SL. (2018). High levels of sewage contamination released from urban areas after storm events: A quantitative survey with sewage specific bacterial indicators. PLoS Med. 15(7): e1002614. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1002614.

Walsh, J., D. Wuebbles, K. Hayhoe, J. Kossin, K. Kunkel, G. Stephens, P. Thorne, R. Vose, M. Wehner, J. Willis, D. Anderson, S. Doney, R. Feely, P. Hennon, V. Kharin, T. Knutson, F. Landerer, T. Lenton, J. Kennedy, and R. Somerville. (2014) Ch. 2: Our Changing Climate. Climate Change Impacts in the United States: The Third National Climate Assessment, J. M. Melillo, Terese (T.C.) Richmond, and G. W. Yohe, Eds., U.S. Global Change Research Program, 19-67. Retrieved from: https://nca2014.globalchange.gov/report/our-changing-climate/heavy-downpours-increasing

Melosi, Martin. (2000). The Sanitary City: Urban Infrastructure in America from Colonial Times to the Present. Johns Hopkins University Press.

Grabar, Henry. (2019). Tunnel Vision. Slate. Retrieved from: https://slate.com/business/2019/01/chicagos-deep-tunnel-is-it-the-solution-to-urban-flooding-or-a-cautionary-tale.html

Direct download: Why_Sewers_Around_the_World_Keep_Overflowing.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:52pm EDT

Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/Nkq830qWCSh
Our new evolution simulator reveals that extinction often happens when conditions change quickly. Check it out here: https://labs.minutelabs.io/evolution-simulator/

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Extinction: The moment when the last individual of a particular species dies.
Interspecific Competition: When individuals of different species compete for the same resources or habitats.
Thylacine: The so-called Tasmanian Tiger, it is one of the largest predatory marsupials; the last known individual was captured in 1933.
Invasive Species: Any kind of organism that gets introduced to a new environment and causes harm.
Holocene Extinction: The so-called sixth mass extinction, mostly involving larger animals, that started at the end of the last Ice Age, mostly due to human activity. Extinction rates during this time are 100-1000 times higher than usual.
Anagenesis: The gradual evolution of a species over time.
_________________________________________
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___________________________________________
Credits:
Script Writer: David Goldenberg
Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman and Jasper Palfree
Video Director: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg
Video Narrator: Kate Yoshida and Jasper Palfree
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Audio Effect: Scratch Speed by Freesound.org user Racoonanimator

___________________________________________

References:

Cahill, A., Aiello-Lammens, M., M. Caitlin Fisher-Reid, Xia Hua, Caitlin J. Karanewsky, Hae Yeong Ryu, Gena C. Sbeglia, Fabrizio Spagnolo, John B. Waldron, Omar Warsi and John J. Wiens (2013). How does climate change cause extinction? Proceedings of the Royal Society. 280 (1750). Retrieved from: https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2012.1890.

Marcel Cardillo, Georgina M. Mace, Kate E. Jones, Jon Bielby, Olaf R. P. Bininda-Emonds, Wes Sechrest, C. David L. Orme, Andy Purvis (2005). Multiple Causes of High Extinction Risk in Large Mammal Species. Science. 309(5738). Retrieved from: https://science.sciencemag.org/content/309/5738/1239.abstract.

Craig Loehle, Willis Eschenbach (2011). Historical bird and terrestrial mammal extinction rates and causes. Diversity and Distributions, 18(1), 84-91. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1472-4642.2011.00856.x

Johnson, CN, Wroe, S. (2003). Causes of Extinction of Vertebrates during the Holocene of Mainland Australia: Arrival of the Dingo, or Human Impact?. The Holocene. 13 (6): 941–948. Retrieved from: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1191/0959683603hl682fa

Seth M. Rudman, Dolph Schluter. (2016).Ecological Impacts of Reverse Speciation in Threespine Stickleback. Current Biology, 26(4), 490-495. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982216000403.

Direct download: How_To_Go_Extinct.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:51pm EDT

Get your NEW MinuteEarth merch! Sticker packs and T-shirts on sale at https://dftba.com/minuteearth.

Throughout history and around the world, most people dislike hyenas. But why?

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Director, Narrator, and Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits: Hyena photo by Michael Shehan Obeysekera
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mshehan/6846999112
Another hyena photo by Eric Kilby
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ekilby/50051179628
___________________________________________

References:

Batt, S. (2009). Human attitudes towards animals in relation to species similarity to humans: a multivariate approach. Bioscience Horizons 2: 180-190. https://academic.oup.com/biohorizons/article/2/2/180/254452

Glickman, S.E. (1995). The spotted hyena from Aristotle to the Lion King: reputation is everything. Social Research 62(3): 501+. https://www.jstor.org/stable/40971108

Gottlieb, A. (1989). Hyenas and heteroglossia: myth and ritual among the Beng of Côte d'Ivoire. American Ethnologist 16(3): 487. https://anthrosource.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1525/ae.1989.16.3.02a00050

Jacobs, M.H. Why do we like or dislike animals? (2009). Human Dimensions of Wildlife 14 (1): 1-11. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/40791025_Why_Do_We_Like_or_Dislike_Animals

Prokop, P., and Randler, C. (2018). “Biological predispositions and individual differences in human attitudes toward animals,” in Ethnozoology: Animals in our Lives, eds R. R. N. Alves and A. P. D. de Albuquerque (Cambridge, MA: Academic Press), 447–466. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128099131000235

Woods, B. (2000). Beauty and the beast: Preferences for animals in Australia. Journal of
Tourism Studies 11 (2): 25–35. https://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/24139/1/24139_Woods_2000.pdf

Direct download: Did_Disney_Doom_Hyenas.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:55pm EDT

This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2z08OS6

Although it’s not likely to happen soon, someday gas stations may be replaced by (or turn into) another type of fueling station, because no fuel or mode of transportation is forever.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Gas station - a roadside establishment that sells gasoline, and diesel (AKA petrol station, service station, garage, filling station)
Convenience store - a store selling a limited range of household goods and groceries, often functioning simultaneously as a gas station
Stable - a building for keeping horses
Livery stable - a building where horse owners can/could pay a fee to have their horses fed and kept
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Veritasium: World’s First Car! - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04
Bertha Benz: The Journey That Changed Everything (short film by Mercedes Benz) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vsGrFYD5Nfs
Timeline of US gas station history - https://www.convenience.org/Topics/Fuels/The-History-of-Fuels-Retailing
_________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

American Oil & Gas Historical Society. “First Gas Pump and Service Station.” https://aoghs.org/transportation/first-gas-pump-and-service-stations Accessed January 2020.

Beckman, T. N. 2011. A brief history of the gasoline service station. Journal of Historical Research in Marketing. Chicago. http://bit.ly/39WaadQ

Caldeira, K. Personal communication February 2020.

Coren, M.J. 18 May 2019. "Researchers have no idea when electric cars are going to take over." https://qz.com/1620614/electric-car-forecasts-are-all-over-the-map/

Henderson, W., & Benjamin, S. 1994. Gas Stations: Landmarks of the American Roadside. Motorbooks International. Osceola.

IEA. 2019. "Global EV Outlook 2019." Paris https://www.iea.org/reports/global-ev-outlook-2019

Jakle, J. A., & Sculle, K. A. 1994. The gas station in America. JHU Press.

Kah, M. December 2019. Electric vehicle penetration and its impact on global oil demand: a survey of 2019 forecast trends. https://energypolicy.columbia.edu/sites/default/files/file-uploads/EV-SurveyReport-CGEP_Report_121019_0.pdf / http://bit.ly/2TRKZUa

Kane, M. 2 Feb 2020. "Global EV Sales For 2019 Now In: Tesla Model 3 Totally Dominated." https://insideevs.com/news/396177/global-ev-sales-december-2019/

McKerracher, C. et al. 2019. Electric Vehicle Outlook 2019. https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook/#toc-viewreport

Muller, D. 23 Nov 2017. "World’s First Car!" https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DL_mJeb6O04

Sachs, W. 1992. For love of the automobile: Looking back into the history of our desires. Univ of California Press. https://go.aws/33lbPHe

US DOE. "U.S. Plug-in Electric Vehicle Sales by Model.” https://afdc.energy.gov/data/10567

Direct download: Will_Gas_Stations_Survive.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:18pm EDT

This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/3dSVdur

We’ll each have at least $100,000 more in our piggy banks, on average, if we stop climate change than if we don’t.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
climate change damages, greenhouse gas emissions, climate mitigation
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Burke M, WM Davis, NS Diffenaugh. 2018. Large potential reduction in economic damages under UN mitigation targets Nature 557: 549-553.

Hsiang S, R Kopp, A Jina, J Rising, M Delgado, S Mohan, DJ Rasmussen, R Muir-Wood, P Wilson, M Oppenheimer, K Larsen, T Houser. 2017. Estimating economic damage from climate change in the United States. Science 356, 1362-1369

International Monetary Fund. 2017. The Effects of Weather Shocks on Economic Activity: How Can Low-income Countries Cope? World Economic Outlook Chapter 3, 117-183.

Kahn, ME, K Mohaddes, RNC Ng, M Hashem Pesaran, M Raissi, J-C Yang. 2019. Long-Term Macroeconomic Effects of Climate Change: A Cross-Country Analysis, CESifo Working Paper, No. 7738, Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo), Munich.


Some economists argue that people in the future will be so much richer than people today that we should just let them pay to fix climate change. There’s no guarantee, however, that future people will be richer (especially if we let climate change happen), and other economists argue that even if future people are richer, it’s not ok to leave them with a ruined planet. So, we’ve emphasized why it would be beneficial to slow climate change now.

Direct download: If_We_Arent_Too_Late.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:46pm EDT

Join us on Patreon at http://patreon.com/MinuteEarth

As we see a rise in misinformation on YouTube, educational channels like MinuteEarth need your support today more than ever.

Thanks also to our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Misinformation: false information that is spread, regardless of intent to mislead
Disinformation: deliberately misleading or biased information; manipulated narrative or facts
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@thejuliangomez)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits: Emperor penguin photo by Cristopher Michel
https://flic.kr/p/pKneEA
Macaroni penguin photo by Liam Quinn
https://flic.kr/p/9YG3s2
COX-2 graphics by Cytochrome c
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cyclooxygenase-2.png

___________________________________________

References:

Anderson, Janna, and Lee Rainie. "The future of truth and misinformation online." Pew Research Center 19 (2017).
“Why Is YouTube Broadcasting Climate Misinformation to Millions?” Avaaz, 16 Jan. 2020, http://secure.avaaz.org/campaign/en/youtube_climate_misinformation/.
Del Vicario, Michela, et al. "The spreading of misinformation online." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 113.3 (2016): 554-559.Iammarino, Nicholas K., and Thomas W. O’Rourke. "The challenge of alternative facts and the rise of misinformation in the digital age: Responsibilities and opportunities for health promotion and education." American journal of health education 49.4 (2018): 201-205.
Lewis, Paul. "Fiction is outperforming reality”: How YouTube’s algorithm distorts truth." The Guardian 2 (2018): 2018.
Meserole, Chris. "How misinformation spreads on social media—And what to do about it." The Brookings Institution (May 9, 2018), https://www.brookings. edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2018/05/09/how-misinformation-spreads-on-social-media-and-what-to-do-about-it (2018).
O'Connor, Cailin. How Misinformation Spreads-and Why We Trust It. Scientific American, Sept. 2019, http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/how-misinformation-spreads-and-why-we-trust-it/.
Roberts, David. YouTube Has a Big Climate Misinformation Problem It Can't Solve. Vox, 26 Jan. 2020, http://www.vox.com/energy-and-environment/2020/1/26/21068473/youtube-climate-change-misinformation-epistemic-crisis.
Syed-Abdul, Shabbir, et al. "Misleading health-related information promoted through video-based social media: anorexia on YouTube." Journal of medical Internet research 15.2 (2013): e30.Williamson, Phil. "Take the time and effort to correct misinformation." Nature 540.7632 (2016): 171-171.
Wood, Mike. “How Does Misinformation Spread Online?” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 6 Dec. 2018, http://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/web-mistrust/201812/how-does-misinformation-spread-online.

Educational creators featured in this video:
Jordan Harrod – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC1H1NWNTG2Xi3pt85ykVSHA
SciShow – https://www.youtube.com/user/scishow
Tom Scott – https://www.youtube.com/user/enyay
ASAP Science – https://www.youtube.com/user/AsapSCIENCE
ViHart – https://www.youtube.com/user/Vihart
DrawCuriosity – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCOs_jEnQF2ePJzjJTgRtunA
TierZoo – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCHsRtomD4twRf5WVHHk-cMw
Wannabe Linguist – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCkl3U62tqz-4SDxbqjn4G7A
Kurzgesagt – https://www.youtube.com/user/Kurzgesagt
Sabrina Cruz – https://www.youtube.com/user/NerdyAndQuirky
msbeautyphile – https://www.youtube.com/user/msbeautyphile
CGP Grey – https://www.youtube.com/user/CGPGrey
Hot Mess – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw
Jabrils – https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQALLeQPoZdZC4JNUboVEUg
CrashCourse – https://www.youtube.com/user/crashcourse
Tippe Top Physics – https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics

Direct download: YouTube_Is_Misleading_You._Help_Us_Make_It_Better..mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:05pm EDT

This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2X0Nxzv

Although coal is such an amazing energy source that we've kept using it despite the harm it causes, today we may be better poised to stop using it than at any previous time in history.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
See How the World’s Most Polluted Air Compares With Your City’s - https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/12/02/climate/air-pollution-compare-ar-ul.html
_________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Co-Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020

Coady, D. et al. 2015. How Large Are Global Energy Subsidies? https://www.imf.org/en/Publications/WP/Issues/2016/12/31/How-Large-Are-Global-Energy-Subsidies-42940

Farrow, A., Miller, K.A. & Myllyvirta, L. February 2020. Toxic air: The price of fossil fuels. Seoul: Greenpeace Southeast Asia. 44 pp. https://storage.googleapis.com/planet4-southeastasia-stateless/2020/02/21b480fa-toxic-air-report-110220.pdf

Freese, B. 2016. Coal: A Human History. Basic Books

Freese, B. Personal communication, Feb 2020

IEA. 2019. Coal 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/coal-2019

IEA. 2019. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2019. Paris. https://www.iea.org/reports/global-energy-co2-status-report-2019

Jaffe, E. 17 September 2015. The Enormous Social Cost of Cheap Coal. https://www.citylab.com/environment/2015/09/the-enormous-social-cost-of-cheap-coal/405730/

Ramani, R.V. & Evans, M.A. "Coal Mining." https://www.britannica.com/technology/coal-mining Accessed Dec 2019

Pompeu, N.B. 14 Feb 2019. Air Pollution and the Health Cost of Coal. https://www.iisd.org/gsi/subsidy-watch-blog/air-pollution-and-health-cost-coal

Union of Concerned Scientists. 15 July 2006. A Short History of Energy. https://www.ucsusa.org/resources/short-history-energy

US EIA. "Coal explained: Coal and the environment." https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/coal/coal-and-the-environment.php Accessed Dec 2019

Wikipedia. “Coal.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal Accessed Dec 2019

Wikipedia. “History of coal mining.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_coal_mining Accessed Dec 2019

World Coal Association. "Where is coal found?” https://www.worldcoal.org/coal/where-coal-found Accessed Feb 2020

https://ourworldindata.org/uploads/2020/02/Safest-source-of-energy-2048x1942.png
https://www.lazard.com/media/451086/lazards-levelized-cost-of-energy-version-130-vf.pdf
https://www.irena.org/costs/Power-Generation-Costs/Hydropower

Direct download: The_Best_Worst_Energy_Source.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:05pm EDT

This video was made in partnership with Bill Gates. To learn more about his work on clean energy, visit https://gatesnot.es/2WDTJ1L

It’s hard to replace jet fuel because the alternatives aren’t energetic enough, are too dangerous, or aren’t yet being made at scale.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Jet fuel - a liquid petroleum fuel with high specific energy and energy density, used in airplane jet engines, made of kerosene with a few additives
Specific Energy - how much energy something contains per unit mass
Energy Density - how much energy something contains per unit volume
Synthetic jet fuel - a jet fuel replacement, typically aiming to have lower life cycle environmental impacts than jet fuel (AKA: sustainable aviation fuel (SAF), alternative jet fuel, renewable aviation fuel, renewable jet fuel, biojet fuel, sustainable alternative fuel)
Kerosene - a petroleum product that is the main component of jet fuel (and old fashioned lanterns)
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
What you get from a barrel of oil - https://www.eia.gov/energyexplained/oil-and-petroleum-products/
Real Engineering: Are Electric Planes Possible? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VNvzZfsC13o&feature=youtu.be
_________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman
Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

ATAG. Nov 2017. Beginner’s Guide to Sustainable Aviation Fuel, Edition 3. https://bit.ly/2AcJLLW Accessed Jan 2020.

ATAG. “Producing sustainable aviation fuel” https://bit.ly/3gncnmh Accessed Jan 2020

Burton, Freya. Personal communication, Feb 2020

Caldeira, K. Personal communication, Feb 2020

Cey, E., et al. 2019. Energy Education. “Oil formation.” https://bit.ly/3ej8r3Y Accessed Jan 2020

Chuck, C. (Ed.). 2016. Biofuels for aviation: feedstocks, technology and implementation. Academic Press

Goldmann, A., et al. 2018. A study on electrofuels in aviation. Energies, 11(2), 392. https://bit.ly/2AfRUis

Hileman, J. I., & Stratton, R. W. 2014. Alternative jet fuel feasibility. Transport Policy, 34, 52-62. https://bit.ly/2X8832H

IATA. May 2019. “Sustainable Aviation Fuels Fact sheet.” https://bit.ly/2ZO2BDX Accessed Jan 2020

IATA. December 2019. "Fuel Fact Sheet." https://bit.ly/3dcJ0Ry Accessed March 2020

Le Feuvre, P. 18 March 2019. Are aviation biofuels ready for take off? https://bit.ly/2XA5R2T

Lehtveer, M., Brynolf, S., & Grahn, M. 2019. What Future for Electrofuels in Transport? Analysis of Cost Competitiveness in Global Climate Mitigation. Environmental science & technology, 53(3), 1690-1697. https://bit.ly/3d96QgX

McKinsey. Energy Resources. https://bit.ly/2M7pYzW Accessed December 2019.

Monroe Aerospace. 29 April 2019. Why Airplanes Use Kerosene Rather Than Plain Gasoline for Fuel. https://bit.ly/3d8FpnD

Searle, S. 15 Nov 2018. Decarbonizing aviation through low-carbon fuels will be beyond difficult. https://bit.ly/2zAN1kc

Shaw, R.J. 12 June 2014. "How does a jet engine work?" https://go.nasa.gov/2XOwG3F Accessed Jan 2020

Sindreu, J. 10 Jan 2020. The Promise of Sustainable Aviation Fuel Isn’t for Today. https://on.wsj.com/3gthykv

Wikipedia. "Nuclear Powered Aircraft” https://bit.ly/2ZGECGw Accessed Jan 2020.

Thanks also to Steve Thorne and Erik Pieh.

References for calculations
https://bit.ly/3c9Lvmc
https://bit.ly/2yC04kS
https://bit.ly/2X5OAPV
https://bit.ly/2zDqoLT
https://bit.ly/3gw1L4n
https://bit.ly/2TLZQPo
https://bit.ly/2TGOV9B
https://bit.ly/2TLG86r
https://bit.ly/2ZHdZkN
https://www.wolframalpha.com/input/?i=jet+fuel
https://www.toyota.com/corolla/features/capacities/1882/1863/1856
https://www.worldatlas.com/articles/how-much-does-gasoline-weigh.html
https://theicct.org/sites/default/files/publications/Transatlantic_Fuel_Efficiency_Ranking_20180912.pdf
https://www.transtats.bts.gov/Distance.asp?pn=0
https://physics.info/energy-chemical/
https://www.energy.gov/eere/fuelcells/hydrogen-storage
https://neutrium.net/properties/specific-energy-and-energy-density-of-fuels/

Direct download: Is_There_A_Better_Way_To_Power_Airplanes.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:18pm EDT

Sign up for your FREE trial to The Great Courses Plus here: http://ow.ly/2UGB30qCbvs.

Because of the way genetic reprogramming works, it’s hard to make one clone based on an adult cell, and it’s almost impossible to make a second-generation one.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cell: The smallest structural and functional unit of an organism.
Clone: An organism produced asexually from one ancestor, to which they are genetically identical.
DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material that is present in nearly all living organisms as the main component of chromosomes. It is the carrier of genetic information.
Embryo: An unborn or unhatched offspring early in the process of development.
Enzyme: A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction.
Gene: A unit of heredity which is transferred from a parent to offspring. These are encoded within DNA and help determine traits.
Genetic Reprogramming: This refers to erasing and remodeling epigenetic marks, such as DNA methylation during mammalian development.
Zygote: A diploid cell resulting from the fusion of two haploid gametes
___________________________________________
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Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Cameron Duke (@dukeofcam)
Video Director, Narrator, and Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Chan, M. M., Smith, Z. D., Egli, D., Regev, A., & Meissner, A. (2012). Mouse ooplasm confers context-specific reprogramming capacity. Nature Genetics, 44(9), 978–980. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng.2382

Dean, W., Santos, F., & Reik, W. (2003). Epigenetic reprogramming in early mammalian development and following somatic nuclear transfer. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology, 14(1), 93–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1084-9521(02)00141-6

Evans, M. J., Gurer, C., Loike, J. D., Wilmut, I., Schnieke, A. E., & Schon, E. A. (1999). Mitochondrial DNA genotypes in nuclear transfer-derived cloned sheep. Nature Genetics, 23(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1038/12696

Gao, R., Wang, C., Gao, Y., et al. (2018). Inhibition of Aberrant DNA Re-methylation Improves Post-implantation Development of Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos. Cell Stem Cell, 23(3), 426–435.e5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2018.07.017

Histone Deacetylase - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics. (n.d.). Www.Sciencedirect.Com. Retrieved March 2, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/neuroscience/histone-deacetylase

Hochedlinger, K., & Plath, K. (2009). Epigenetic reprogramming and induced pluripotency. Development, 136(4), 509–523. https://doi.org/10.1242/dev.020867

Hochedlinger, K., Rideout, W. M., Kyba, M., Daley, G. Q., Blelloch, R., & Jaenisch, R. (2004). Nuclear transplantation, embryonic stem cells and the potential for cell therapy. The Hematology Journal, 5, S114–S117. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.thj.6200435

Lister, R., Pelizzola, M., Kida, Y. S., et al. (2011). Hotspots of aberrant epigenomic reprogramming in human induced pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 471(7336), 68–73. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature09798

Morgan, H. D., Santos, F., Green, K., Dean, W., & Reik, W. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming in mammals. Human Molecular Genetics, 14(suppl_1), R47–R58. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddi114

Reik, W. (2001). Epigenetic Reprogramming in Mammalian Development. Science, 293(5532), 1089–1093. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1063443

Srivastava, D., & DeWitt, N. (2016). In Vivo Cellular Reprogramming: The Next Generation. Cell, 166(6), 1386–1396. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.055

Wakayama, S., Kohda, T., Obokata, H., et al. (2013). Successful Serial Recloning in the Mouse over Multiple Generations. Cell Stem Cell, 12(3), 293–297. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2013.01.005

Wakayama, T., Shinkai, Y., Tamashiro, K. L. K., et al. (2000). Cloning of mice to six generations. Nature, 407(6802), 318–319. https://doi.org/10.1038/35030301

Yamanaka, S. (2012). Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Past, Present, and Future. Cell Stem Cell, 10(6), 678–684. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2012.05.005

Direct download: Why_You_Cant_Build_A_Clone_Army..._Yet.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:01pm EDT

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Sounds that animals make can be really different, and it turns out that there's a reason why some species communicate with certain sounds.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
frequency - how often a wave occurs in a certain unit of time
Hertz - a unit of frequency (Hz), the number of waves that occus in a second
pitch - a perceptual property of sounds that allows their ordering on a frequency-related scale
echolocation - the location of objects by reflected sound
refraction - the change in direction of a wave
diffraction - the bending of waves around obstacles and the spreading out of waves beyond openings
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Arch, V. A. and P. M. Narins. 2008. “Silent” signals: selective forces acting on ultrasonic communication systems in terrestrial vertebrates. Animal Behaviour 76: 1423–1428. https://www.mn.uio.no/cees/english/research/news/events/research/journal-clubs/eef/2008/silent-signals.html

Bedard Jr. and T. M. Georges. 2000. Atmospheric Infrasound, Physics Today, 53(3): 32-37. https://psl.noaa.gov/programs/infrasound/atmospheric_infrasound.pdf

Ladich F. and H. Winkler. 2017. Acoustic communication in terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates,” Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2306–2317. https://jeb.biologists.org/content/jexbio/220/13/2306.full.pdf

Michelsen, A. and O.N. Larsen. 1983. Strategies for acoustic communication in complex environments. In: Neuroethology and Behavioural Physiology (ed Huber, F. and Markl, H.) pp. 321-331 Berlin: Springer-Verlag. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-69271-0_23

Narins, P.M., A.S. Stoeger, and C. O'Connell-Rodwell. 2016. Infrasonic and seismic communication in the vertebrates with special emphasis on the Afrotheria: An update and future directions. In Vertebrate Sound Production and Acoustic Communication (ed. R. A. Suthers, W. T. Fitch, R. R. Fay and A. N. Popper), pp. 191-227. Cham: Springer. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-27721-9_7

Direct download: Why_Wolves_Dont_Chirp.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:20pm EDT

Visit https://www.apmreports.org/water to read "Buried Lead". This video was made in partnership with The Water Main.

We've known for millennia that lead pipes could make us sick, so why are we still drinking from them?

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Hard water: water with a high mineral content
Soft water: water with a low mineral content
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Hernberg, S. (2000) Lead Poisoning in a Historical Perspective. American Journal of Industrial Medicine 38(3): 256-249. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/1097-0274%28200009%2938%3A3%3C244%3A%3AAID-AJIM3%3E3.0.CO%3B2-F

Hodge, AT. (1981) Vitruvius, lead pipes and lead poisoning. American Journal of Archaeology 85(4): 486–491. https://www.jstor.org/stable/504874

Milton, AL. (1988) Lead and lead poisoning from Antiquity to Modern Times. Ohio Journal of Science 88: 78-84. https://kb.osu.edu/handle/1811/23252

Rabin, R. (2008) The Lead Industry and Lead Water Pipes: a Modest Campaign. Public Health 98 (9): 1584–92. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2509614/

Troesken W. and Beeson, P. (2003) On the Significance of Lead Water Mains in American Cities: Some Historical Evidence.” In Health and Labor Force Participation over the Life Course, ed. Costa Dora L., 127–51. Chicago: University of Chicago Press and NBER. https://www.nber.org/chapters/c9632.pdf

Direct download: Why_Do_We_STILL_Use_Lead_Pipes.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:31pm EDT

Thanks to CTBTO for sponsoring this video: https://www.ctbto.org

Many of the bewildering correlations in our world - like that between Beryllium-7 and the Asian monsoon - are a result of huge and unseen forces that tie them together.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Monsoon: A seasonal increase in precipitation driven by atmospheric conditions.
Hadley Cell: A global scale atmospheric cell driven by air rising near the equator and falling as it flows towards the polls.
Ferrel Cell: A secondary atmospheric circulation that collides with the Hadley cell and pushes air back down towards the Earth’s surface.
Intertropical Convergence Zone: The narrow zone between the northern and southern Hadley cells where warm air comes together and rises.
Tropopause: The boundary area roughly 15 kilometers above the Earth’s surface between the troposphere and the stratosphere.
Radionuclide: Isotopes of atoms that release radiation as they break down.
Beryllium-7: A relatively stable radionuclide of the element Beryllium that naturally forms in the tropopause during spallation.
Spallation: The process in which a heavier atom loses nuclear particles after being bombarded by cosmic rays.
Cosmic Rays: High energy atomic particles that move at near light speed through space.
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Terzi, L., Kalinowski, M., Schoeppner, M., and Wotawa, G. (2019). How to predict seasonal weather and monsoons with radionuclide monitoring. Nature. 9: 2729. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-39664-7.

Köhn‐Reich, L., Bürger, G. (2019). Dynamical prediction of Indian monsoon: Past and present skill. International Journal of Climatology. 38:3574-3581. Retrieved from: https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/joc.6039.

Delaygue, G., Bekki, S., and Bard, E. (2015) Modelling the stratospheric budget of beryllium isotopes. Tellus B: Chemical and Physical Meteorology, 67:1 Retrieved from: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3402/tellusb.v67.28582.

Palukkat, H. (2016) The odds of foretelling rains: Why monsoon prediction is hard, and why it could soon improve. Economic Times. Retrieved from: https://economictimes.indiatimes.com/news/politics-and-nation/the-odds-of-foretelling-rains-why-monsoon-prediction-is-hard-and-why-it-could-soon-improve/articleshow/52876823.cms.

Kalinowski, M. (2020). Personal Communication. Provisional Technical Secretariat, Preparatory Commission for the Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization.

Direct download: This_Atom_Can_Predict_The_Future.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:14pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

Our modern lifestyle and diet are leading to the extinction of parts of our microbiome, but we can use what we've learned from dealing with nearly-extinct macrobiota, like bald eagles, to understand the consequences and find solutions.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Extinction: the termination of a kind of organism or group of kinds, usually a species
Endangered: a species that is very likely to become extinct in the near future
Microbiome: a community of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and protists) that inhabit a particular environment and especially the collection of microorganisms living in or on the human body
Hunter-gatherer: a member of a culture in which food is obtained by hunting, fishing, and foraging rather than by agriculture or animal husbandry
Prevotella: a genus of bacteria most commonly found in the microbiome of people who eat a plant-rich diet
DDT: an aromatic organochlorine sometimes used as insecticide banned in the U.S. that tends to accumulate and persist in ecosystems and has toxic effects on many vertebrates
C. diff: (short for Clostridium difficile) a toxin-producing bacterium which can infect the bowel, causing illness with diarrhea and fever, especially in people who have been treated with antibiotics
Antibiotics: an antibacterial substance (such as penicillin, cephalosporin, and ciprofloxacin) that is used to treat or prevent infections by killing or inhibiting the growth of bacteria in or on the body
Probiotics: a microorganism that when consumed (as in a food or a dietary supplement) maintains or restores beneficial bacteria to the digestive tract
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
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___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

De Filippo, Carlotta, et al. "Impact of diet in shaping gut microbiota revealed by a comparative study in children from Europe and rural Africa." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107.33 (2010): 14691-14696.

Gomez, Andres, et al. "Gut microbiome of coexisting BaAka pygmies and bantu reflects gradients of traditional subsistence patterns." Cell reports 14.9 (2016): 2142-2153.

Hand, Timothy W., et al. "Linking the microbiota, chronic disease, and the immune system." Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism 27.12 (2016): 831-843.

Harmon, K. "Bugs inside: what happens when the microbes that keep us healthy disappear." Sci Amer (2009).

Harrison, Christy. “Disappearance of the Human Microbiota: How We May Be Losing Our Oldest Allies.” ASM.org, American Society for Microbiology, 8 Nov. 2019, www.asm.org/Articles/2019/November/Disappearance-of-the-Gut-Microbiota-How-We-May-Be.

Henson, Shandelle M., et al. "Predator–prey dynamics of bald eagles and glaucous‐winged gulls at Protection Island, Washington, USA." Ecology and evolution 9.7 (2019): 3850-3867.

Jacobson, Rebecca. "Can We Save Our Body’s Ecosystem from Extinction?." PBS Newshour (2014). https://www.pbs.org/newshour/science/theres-extinction-happening-stomach.

Rees, Tobias, and Nils Gilman. Opinion | The Silent Microbiome Crisis. The Washington Post, 26 Feb. 2018, www.washingtonpost.com/news/theworldpost/wp/2018/02/26/microbes/.

Sonnenburg, Erica D., and Justin L. Sonnenburg. "Starving our microbial self: the deleterious consequences of a diet deficient in microbiota-accessible carbohydrates." Cell metabolism 20.5 (2014): 779-786.

Tito, Raul Y., et al. "Insights from characterizing extinct human gut microbiomes." PloS one 7.12 (2012).

Trotter, Bill. Seabirds Declining as Eagles in Maine Recover. Bangor Daily News, 6 Aug. 2011, bangordailynews.com/2011/08/05/environment/seabirds-declining-as-eagles-in-maine-recover/.

US Fish and Wildlife Service. "Bald eagle recovery plan (southwestern population)." US Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque, New Mexico (1982).

Velasquez-Manoff, Moises. "How the Western Diet Has Derailed Our Evolution." Nautilus (2015).

Direct download: The_Extinction_Happening_Inside_You.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:44am EDT

Check out Brilliant (and get 20% off) here: https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth/

We've worked as a team - remotely - for seven years, and we're sharing some of our favorite tips for making it work.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer, Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

We surveyed our team members and put together our favorite specific tools and tips for working from home:

Video Conference Tips:
-During meetings, mute yourself when you’re not speaking, especially if you’re not using headphones. The noise in the room you’re in or the feedback caused by your speakers audio can make the communication less effective.
-Learn how to mute other people in meetings (and don’t take offense when you do get muted).
-Figure out tech workarounds for when your wifi inevitably goes on the fritz (call people in, turn off video to reduce wifi strain, etc).

File Management Tips:
-Establish a naming convention with your team, so that all your shared files are consistent, searchable and organized. All of our projects have two-word codenames and numbers that make it easy to identify them regardless of the final title of the video. When making recordings or video files, we use incremental numbering (e.g. “Audio 1”, “Audio 2”, etc). NEVER use the word “final” or “last” for naming a file!
-If everybody is working with a file syncing app like Dropbox, make sure to set appropriate editing rights to your files. You want at least a shared folder that anyone on your team can edit and add stuff to, but some files need to be managed by fewer people to avoid unwanted deletions. For example, we have a folder in which everyone can add/modify/delete files, but only one person is in charge of deleting and cleaning up after everything important has been archived.
-If there’s a particular task that is repetitive and can be done by different people, make sure to write down the steps in detail so that nothing is missed or forgotten.

Tools For Giving Feedback
-Screenshots: In OSX, use command-shift-4 to take a screenshot. On Windows 10, you can use the Windows Ink Workspace right in the task bar, which lets you crop and annotate your screenshot.
-CloudApp(www.getcloudapp.com): Captures and shares screenshots (and more) via shareable links
-Jing (www.techsmith.com/jing-tool.html): Lets you create screenshots and auto-generates a shareable link for each one.
-Epic Pen (epic-pen.com): Great free tool for PCs for drawing on your screen (esp when sharing that screen with someone else)

Other Work From Home Tips:
-Add things like “time to eat lunch” on your calendar if you need it, or you may end up eating lunch at 3pm.
-Keep track of your time! If you don’t keep track of the amount of time you spend working, you might overwork yourself (bad) and still feel like you’re not doing enough (worse). Toggl (www.toggl.com) is a great tool for that.
-Consider coworking with a group of (nonwork) friends over Skype or Discord. It can help you get into “work mode” and make you feel a little less lonely while working.

Direct download: How_to_Work_From_Home_as_a_Team.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 6:50pm EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: http://tabforacause.org/minuteearth2

We’ve changed - and standardized - the way diseases get named because the old way was often stigmatizing and confusing.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Coronaviruses (CoV): a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as COVID-19.
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): an infectious disease caused by a new strain of coronavirus that was discovered in 2019 and named a pandemic in 2020.
2009 H1N1 Flu: a pandemic disease that emerged in 2009 caused by the H1N1)pdm09 virus, which was different from any other influenza strain circulating at the time.
World Health Organization (WHO): an organization that directs and coordinates international health within the United Nations system.
1918 Flu: often referred to as the “Spanish flu,” the 1918 influenza pandemic was the most severe pandemic in recent history and caused by an H1N1 virus. There are competing theories for its place of origin, but public health experts agree it did not actually originate in Spain.
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS): a spectrum of conditions caused by infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It was first named “gay-related immunodeficiency disease (GRID),” despite the fact anyone, regardless of sexuality, is susceptible.
Stigma: a mark of disgrace associated with a particular circumstance, quality, or person.
Pandemic: the worldwide spread of a new disease.
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Learn more about social stigma associated with COVID-19: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/covid19-stigma-guide.pdf
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Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Writer and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)
Script Editor: Kate Yoshida and David Goldenberg
Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Ballantyne, C. "Will Egypt’s plans to kill pigs protect it from swine—sorry, H1N1 flu." Sci Am News Blog https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/news-blog/will-egypts-plans-to-kill-pigs-prot-2009-05-01/ (2009).

World Health Organization. "World now at the start of 2009 influenza pandemic." http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2009/h1n1_pandemic_phase6_20090611/en/index.html (2009).

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. "The 2009 H1N1 pandemic: summary highlights, April 2009-April 2010." Official Online Article Published by the Centers for Disease Control 4 https://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/cdcresponse.htm (2010).

Selyukh, A. "Pork industry still reeling from swine flu.” ABC News https://abcnews.go.com/Business/pork-industry-reeling-swine-flu/story?id=8840004 (2009).

World Health Organization. "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and the virus that causes it" https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/technical-guidance/naming-the-coronavirus-disease-(covid-2019)-and-the-virus-that-causes-it (2020).

World Health Organization. "World Health Organization Best Practices for the Naming of New Human Infectious Diseases" https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/163636/WHO_HSE_FOS_15.1_eng.pdf?sequence=1 (2015).

Direct download: How_To_Name_A_Disease_Like_COVID-19.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:34am EDT

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Wood is abundant and full of energy, but outside of some insects, almost no animals eat it because the stuff it's made of is hard to break down.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Xylophagy: the eating of wood
Lignin: a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and help make wood rigid.
Cellulose: a polysaccharide consisting of chains of glucose monomers, which is the main constituent of plant cell walls.
Lignin oxidation: a depolymerization method to break bonds in lignin molecules such as ether or carbon–carbon bonds by applying an oxidant such as oxygen.
Depolymerization: the process of breaking down a polymer, such as lignin, into simpler monomers
Trichonympha agilis: a specialized protist that lives in the hindguts of many termite species that breaks down the cellulose in the wood they eat and may contribute to the lignin oxidation process.
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Learn about the fungi that first unlocked the secrets of breaking down lignin: https://www.energy.gov/science/articles/behind-scenes-how-fungi-make-nutrients-available-world
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___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "Rampant host switching shaped the termite gut microbiome." Current biology 28.4 (2018): 649-654.

Martin, Michael M. "Cellulose digestion in insects." Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part A: Physiology 75.3 (1983): 313-324.Mathews, Stephanie L., et al. "Public questions spur the discovery of new bacterial species associated with lignin bioconversion of industrial waste." Royal Society open science 6.3 (2019): 180748.

Chaney, William Reynolds. Why Do Animals Eat the Bark and Wood of Trees and Shrubs?. Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service, 2003.

de Gonzalo, Gonzalo, et al. "Bacterial enzymes involved in lignin degradation." Journal of Biotechnology 236 (2016): 110-119.

Hosokawa, Takahiro, et al. "Strict host-symbiont cospeciation and reductive genome evolution in insect gut bacteria." PLoS biology 4.10 (2006).

Novaes, Evandro, et al. "Lignin and biomass: a negative correlation for wood formation and lignin content in trees." Plant Physiology 154.2 (2010): 555-561.

Vega, Fernando E., and Richard W. Hofstetter, eds. Bark beetles: biology and ecology of native and invasive species. Academic Press, 2014.

McNab, Brian Keith. The physiological ecology of vertebrates: a view from energetics. Cornell University Press, 2002.

Bourguignon, Thomas, et al. "The evolutionary history of termites as inferred from 66 mitochondrial genomes." Molecular Biology and Evolution 32.2 (2014): 406-421.

Morgenstern, I., Klopman, S., & Hibbett, D. S. (2008). Molecular Evolution and Diversity of Lignin Degrading Heme Peroxidases in the Agaricomycetes. Journal of Molecular Evolution, 66(3), 243–257.

Suman, S. K., Dhawaria, M., Tripathi, D., Raturi, V., Adhikari, D. K., & Kanaujia, P. K. (2016). Investigation of lignin biodegradation by Trabulsiella sp. isolated from termite gut. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 112, 12–17.

Janusz, G., Pawlik, A., Sulej, J., Świderska-Burek, U., Jarosz-Wilkołazka, A., & Paszczyński, A. (2017). Lignin degradation: microorganisms, enzymes involved, genomes analysis and evolution. FEMS Microbiology Reviews, 41(6), 941–962.

Ayuso-Fernández, Iván, Francisco J. Ruiz-Dueñas, and Angel T. Martínez. "Evolutionary convergence in lignin-degrading enzymes." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 115.25 (2018): 6428-6433.

Ruiz-Dueñas, F. J., & Martínez, Á. T. (2009). Microbial degradation of lignin: how a bulky recalcitrant polymer is efficiently recycled in nature and how we can take advantage of this. Microbial Biotechnology, 2(2), 164–177.

Hibbing, Michael E., et al. "Bacterial competition: surviving and thriving in the microbial jungle." Nature Reviews Microbiology 8.1 (2010): 15-25.

Direct download: Why_Dont_More_Animals_Eat_Wood.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:29am EDT

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Earth's ocean water is continuous. How can we divide it into sections that are more useful?

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

IHO: International Hydrographic Organization

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

We had fun playing with (and transitioning between) different map projections in this video, and we came across this great - and mesmerizing! - website: https://bl.ocks.org/mbostock/3711652

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Credits (and Twitter handles):

Writer, Director, and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Antonello, A. (2018). The Southern Ocean. In Armitage D. (Ed.), Oceanic Histories (296-318). Cambridge University Press.

Candido, M. (2011). South Atlantic. In Burnard, T. (Ed.), Oxford Bibliographies Online: Atlantic History, Oxford University Press.

Caspers, H. (1965). Van Mieghem, J. and Van Oye, P (Eds), Biogeography and Ecology in Antarctica. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers.



Lewis, M.W. (1999). “Dividing the Ocean Sea.” Geographical Review 89 (2), 188-214. https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1931-0846.1999.tb00213.x

International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (1953): Limits of Oceans and Seas, International Hydrographic Organization., Bremerhaven. https://epic.awi.de/id/eprint/29772/

International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), (2002): Limits of Oceans and Seas , International Hydrographic Organization (DRAFT), Monaco.

Direct download: Where_Does_One_Ocean_End_And_Another_Begin.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:33pm EDT

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When a group of apes got split apart, slight differences in their new environments led to big differences in future generations.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Chimpanzee: A great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives.
Bonobo: A slightly smaller great ape native to tropical Africa that is one of humanity’s closest living relatives.
Speciation: A lineage-splitting event in which a population of the same species becomes two different species.
Allopatric speciation: Speciation that occurs when populations of the same species get isolated geographically.
Hominini: The taxonomical classification that includes humans, chimps, and bonobos.
Pan: The taxonomical classification that includes chimps and bonobos.
Chimpobo: A name we just made up to identify the common ancestor of the chimpanzee and bonobo.
Congo river: The deepest river in the world and the second largest (behind the Amazon) in discharge volume.
G-G Rubbing: A form of genital to genital contact bonobos sometimes use to form social bonds.
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Credits (and Twitter handles):
Writer, Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
VHS Rewind effect based on footage by http://www.anfx.co

___________________________________________

References:

Caswell, J., Mallick, S., Richter, D., Neubauer, J., Schirmer, C., Gnerre, S., Reich, D. (2008). Analysis of Chimpanzee History Based on Genome Sequence Alignments. PLoS Genetics. 4(4): e1000057. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000057.

Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139.

Prufer, K. et al (2012). The Bonobo Genome Compared with the Chimpanzee and Human Genomes. Nature. 486: 527–531. Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/nature11128.

Hey, J. (2010). The Divergence of Chimpanzee Species and Subspecies as Revealed in Multipopulation Isolation-with-Migration Analyses. Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27(4): 921-933. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2877540/.

Takemoto H, Kawamoto Y, Furuichi T. (2015). How Did Bonobos Come to Range South of the Congo River? Reconsideration of the Divergence of Pan paniscus from Other Pan Populations. Evolutionary Anthropology. 24:170–184. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26478139.

Stanford, C. (2019). Personal Communication. Professor of Anthropology and Biological Sciences, University of Southern California.

Direct download: How_This_River_Made_Chimps_Violent.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:59am EDT

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Bamboo is the world’s fastest growing plant thanks to the cell elongation process it shares with all grasses and its unique cell wall layering adaptation, allowing it to shoot up to 100 ft (30m) in just 8 weeks.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:

Rhizome: a continuously growing horizontal underground stem which puts out lateral shoots and roots at intervals
Vacuole: an organelle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid, whose main purpose in plants is to maintain pressure against the cell wall
Microfibrils: fiber-like strands consisting of glycoproteins and cellulose that make up the cell wall structure
Auxin: a plant hormone which causes the elongation of cells in shoots and is involved in regulating plant growth
___________________________________________
If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Fastest growing plant record - https://www.guinnessworldrecords.com/world-records/fastest-growing-plant
Grass: An Introduction - https://lizzieharper.co.uk/2018/06/grass-an-introduction/
Bamboo Shoot Timelapse - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=77Pgqf0rTbY
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___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Video Narrator, Script Writer, and Co-Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)
Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator and Co-Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Velasquez, Silvia Melina, et al. "Auxin and cellular elongation." Plant Physiology 170.3 (2016): 1206-1215.

Nonami, Hiroshi. "Plant water relations and control of cell elongation at low water potentials." Journal of Plant Research 111.3 (1998): 373-382.

Wei, Qiang, et al. "Cellular and molecular characterizations of a slow-growth variant provide insights into the fast growth of bamboo." Tree physiology 38.4 (2018): 641-654.

Li, Long, et al. "The association of hormone signalling genes, transcription and changes in shoot anatomy during moso bamboo growth." Plant biotechnology journal 16.1 (2018): 72-85.

Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, Gunnar Kleist, and Richard J. Murphy. "Developmental changes in cell wall structure of phloem fibres of the bamboo Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of Botany 94.4 (2004): 497-505.

Gamuyao, Rico, et al. "Hormone distribution and transcriptome profiles in bamboo shoots provide insights on bamboo stem emergence and growth." Plant and Cell Physiology 58.4 (2017): 702-716.

Wysocki, William P., et al. "Evolution of the bamboos (Bambusoideae; Poaceae): a full plastome phylogenomic analysis." BMC evolutionary biology 15.1 (2015): 50.

Cosgrove, Daniel J. "Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening." F1000Research 5 (2016).

Lodish, Harvey, et al. "Molecular cell biology 4th edition." National Center for Biotechnology Information, Bookshelf (2000).

Perrot-Rechenmann, Catherine. "Cellular responses to auxin: division versus expansion." Cold Spring Harbor perspectives in biology 2.5 (2010): a001446.

Gritsch, Cristina Sanchis, and Richard J. Murphy. "Ultrastructure of fibre and parenchyma cell walls during early stages of culm development in Dendrocalamus asper." Annals of botany 95.4 (2005): 619-629.

Lybeer, Bieke, et al. "Lignification and cell wall thickening in nodes of Phyllostachys viridiglaucescens and Phyllostachys nigra." Annals of botany 97.4 (2006): 529-539.

Tsuyama, Taku, et al. "Lignification in developing culms of bamboo Sinobambusa tootsik." Journal of Wood Science 63.6 (2017): 551-559.

Gibert, Anaïs, et al. "On the link between functional traits and growth rate: meta‐analysis shows effects change with plant size, as predicted." Journal of Ecology 104.5 (2016): 1488-1503.

Direct download: The_Fastest-Growing_Plant_In_The_World.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:54pm EDT

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We could generate a lot of usable energy from human and animal poop through greater adoption of a process for using microbes to break down poop into methane gas.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Anaerobic digestion: a sequence of processes by which microorganisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen
Methanogens: a methane-producing bacterium, especially an archaean which reduces carbon dioxide to methane
Wastewater treatment: a process used to remove contaminants from wastewater or sewage and convert it into an effluent that can be returned to the water cycle with minimum impact on the environment, or directly reused
Biogas: the mixture of gases produced by anaerobic digestion of organic matter, primarily consisting of methane and carbon dioxide, which can be used as a renewable energy source

___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Director, and Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Andriani, Dian, et al. "A review of recycling of human excreta to energy through biogas generation: Indonesia case." Energy Procedia 68 (2015): 219-225.

Karki, Amrit B. "Biogas as renewable energy from organic waste." Journal (2009).

Hatchett, Allison N. "Bovines and Global Warming: How the Cows are Heating Things Up and What Can Be Done to Cool Them Down." Wm. & Mary Envtl. L. & Pol'y Rev. 29 (2004): 767.

Onojo, O. J., et al. "Estimation of the electric power potential of human waste using students hostel soak-away pits." American Journal of Engineering Research, 02 (9) (2013): 198-203.

“RCA Issue Brief #7.” Animal Manure Management, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Dec. 1997, https://www.nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/null/?cid=nrcs143_014211#table1.

“Electricity Generation from Biogas.” Energypedia, https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas.

Direct download: How_To_Turn_Poop_Into_Power.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:23am EDT

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Because the ossification process can differ so much from human to human, we have a wide range of potential bone numbers.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Cartilage: The flexible connective tissue that is turned to bone by osteoblasts.
Osteoblasts: Cells that control calcium and mineral deposition to turn cartilage into bone.
Sesamoids: Bones embedded in tendons or muscles.
Fabella: A large sesamoid bone occasionally found behind the knee joint.
Coccyx: The small set of semi-fused triangular bones at the end of the vertebral column.

___________________________________________

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Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Director and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder



___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Goldberg I, Nathan H. (1987). Anatomy and pathology of the sesamoid bones. The hand compared to the foot. International Orthopaedics. 11(2):141-7. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3610408.

Vineet K. Sarin  Gregory M. Erickson  Nicholas J. Giori A. Gabrielle Bergman  Dennis R. Carter (2003). Coincident development of sesamoid bones and clues to their evolution. The Anatomical Record.5: 174-180. Retrieved from: https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1002/%28SICI%291097-0185%2819991015%29257%3A5%3C174%3A%3AAID-AR6%3E3.0.CO%3B2-O.

Tao Sun, Lingxiang Wang, Haitao Zhao,Wenjuan Wu,and Wenhai Hu (2016). Prevalence, morphological variation and ossification of sesamoid bones of the forefoot: a retrospective radiographic study of 8,716 Chinese subjects. 2(3): 91–96. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410651/.

Postacchini F, Massobrio M. (1983). Idiopathic coccygodynia: Analysis of fifty-one operative cases and a radiographic study of the normal coccyx. The Journal of bone and joint surgery. 65(8): 1116-1124. Retrieved from: https://www.coccyx.org/medabs/posta.htm.

Meals, Roy. (2019). Personal Communication. http://www.AboutBone.com

Direct download: ME_193_-_d4_720.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:13pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

Fruit trees are unpredictable and grow slowly, and consumer tastes are fickle, so successful new varieties of fruit are rare.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:

grafting: joining together a cut branch with a cut root of the same species to produce a new individual

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Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
Video Director: Ever Salazar and Alex Reich
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, and Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Hoying SA, AM DeMarree and MM Sazo. 2012. Successful Apple Grafting Techniques for New York. New York Fruit Quarterly 20 7-10.

Janick J. 2005. The origin of fruits, fruit growing, and fruit breeding. Plant Breeding Rev. 25:255-320.

Luby JJ and DS Bedford. 1992. Honeycrisp apple. Minnesota Report 225-1992 (AD-MR-5877-B)

Minnesota Landscape Arboretum. 2019. Fruit Breeding. University of Minnesota website. http://arb.umn.edu/horticultural-research-center/fruit-breeding

Seetin M. 2018. 2018 U.S. Apple Crop Outlook and Overview. usapple.org 42 pages

Tadesse W et al. 2019. Genetic gains in wheat breeding and its role in feeding the world. Crop Breeding, Genetics, and Genomics 2019;1:e190005. https://doi.org/10.20900/cbgg20190005

Yamamato T. 2016. Breeding, genetics and genomics of fruit trees. Breeding Science 66:1-2.

Direct download: Why_Its_HARD_To_Bring_A_New_Apple_To_Market.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:23pm EDT

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Experts can't agree on the definition of the term "concussion," which makes it difficult to diagnose, treat, and research this important brain injury. 

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a progressive degenerative disease of the brain found in people with a history of repetitive brain trauma (often athletes)
Traumatic brain injury (TBI): a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a bump, blow, or jolt to the head, or penetrating head injury
Subdural hematoma: a collection of blood between the layers of tissue that surround the brain
Cerebral microbleeding: small chronic brain hemorrhages which are likely caused by structural abnormalities of the small vessels of the brain 

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Everything we know about concussions is wrong – https://qz.com/1136683/everything-we-know-about-concussions-is-wrong/

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

 

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And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

 

And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)

Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Arcadi Garcia Rius 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder



___________________________________________

 

References:


Rasmussen, Carly, et al. "How Dangerous Are Youth Sports for the Brain: A Review of the Evidence." Berkeley J. Ent. & Sports L. 7 (2018): 67. - https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1077&context=bjesl

Shen, Francis X. "Are youth sports concussion statutes working." Duq. L. Rev. 56 (2018): 7. - https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3172294

Sharp, David J., and Peter O. Jenkins. "Concussion is confusing us all." Practical neurology 15.3 (2015): 172-186. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4453625/

Tator, Charles H. "Concussions and their consequences: current diagnosis, management and prevention." CMAJ 185.11 (2013): 975-979. - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735746/

Whitelaw, A. S., and I. Young. "A case of perilymphatic fistula in blunt head injury." Emergency medicine journal 22.12 (2005): 921-921. - https://emj.bmj.com/content/22/12/921

Mason, Peggy. “Concussion Is a Counter-Productive Term: Let's Retire It.” The Brain Is Sooooo Cool!, 5 July 2015, https://thebrainissocool.com/2015/07/05/concussion-is-a-counter-productive-term-lets-retire-it/

Haller, Sven, et al. "Cerebral microbleeds: imaging and clinical significance." Radiology 287.1 (2018): 11-28. - https://pubs.rsna.org/doi/10.1148/radiol.2018170803

Goldenbaum, Ellen. “Is It Really a Concussion? Symptoms Overlap with Neck Injuries, Making Diagnosis a Tough Call.” UB News Center, 29 July 2014, http://www.buffalo.edu/news/releases/2014/07/040.html

Direct download: ME_184_-_d4_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:31pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

We’re in the middle of a rapid, unprecedented, and world-changing increase in the intensity and scale of human activity on this planet.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

The Great Acceleration - the dramatic increase in human activity, largely since 1950, that is evident across a variety of socio-economic and biophysical measures, and that has made humans into a planetary scale force
The Anthropocene -  our current geological epoch (contested), beginning when humans first had significant impact on Earth's geology and ecosystems
Hockey stick graph - typically refers to the Mann et al 1999 graph of Earth’s temperature, but can also refer to any trend that's roughly constant for a long duration and then has a drastic upwards shift

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Welcome to the Anthropocene film - https://vimeo.com/39048998
Animated map of last 200,000 years of human population - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PUwmA3Q0_OE
The history of emissions and the Great Acceleration - https://skepticalscience.com/EmmissionsAcceleration.html
The Hockey Stick Controversy - https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2013/05/the-hockey-stick-the-most-controversial-chart-in-science-explained/275753/
An argument for 'why growth can’t be green’ - https://foreignpolicy.com/2018/09/12/why-growth-cant-be-green/#
Can we stabilize Earth, or are we going to cross planetary thresholds? - www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1810141115 
An attainable global vision for conservation and human well-being - https://www.nature.org/content/dam/tnc/nature/en/documents/TNC_AnAttainableGlobalVision_Frontiers.pdf

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

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And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Director and Illustrator: Henry Reich (@MinutePhysics)

With Contributions From: Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

Image Credits: Hockey stick graph: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:T_comp_61-90.pdf by Klaus Bittermann. Used with permission.
Copper graph based on: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Peak_copper#/media/File:Copper_-_world_production_trend.svg
Life expectancy graph: https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy
CO2 graph: https://rateofchange.substack.com/p/the-rate-of-change-july-15-2019
Girl receiving oral polio vaccine: https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdcglobal/8190819087 No changes were made.

 

___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Barnosky, A. D., et al. 2014. Introducing the scientific consensus on maintaining humanity’s life support systems in the 21st century: Information for policy makers. The Anthropocene Review, 1(1), 78-109. http://bit.ly/34rguHz

IGPB. 2015. Great Acceleration. http://www.igbp.net/globalchange/greatacceleration.4.1b8ae20512db692f2a680001630.html Accessed Aug 2019.

Hellmann, J. Aug 2019. Personal communication.

Mann, M. E., et al. 1999. Northern hemisphere temperatures during the past millennium: Inferences, uncertainties, and limitations. Geophysical Research Letters, 26(6), 759-762. https://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1029/1999GL900070.

McNeill, J.R. Oct 2019. Personal communication.

McNeill, J. R. 2001. Something new under the sun: An environmental history of the twentieth-century world (the global century series). WW Norton & Company.

Roser, M. 2019. Life Expectancy. Our World In Data. https://ourworldindata.org/life-expectancy Accessed Sept 2019.

Phillipon, D. Aug 2019. Personal communication.

Polasky, S. Sept 2019. Personal communication.

Steffen, W. et al. 2015. The trajectory of the Anthropocene: the great acceleration. The Anthropocene Review, 2(1), 81-98. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2053019614564785

Thompson et al. 2009. Our plastic age. 364. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2009.0054

Direct download: ME_191_-_d5_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:35pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

 

New technology has revolutionized how we study wild animals, but it has also bogged down scientists with data...luckily, there's an *intelligent* solution.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Deep learning: a subset of machine learning in artificial intelligence that can learning from data that is unstructured or unlabeled

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Take a look at the Snapshot Serengeti colletion and try your hand at classifying species, counting animals, and determining behaviors: https://www.zooniverse.org/projects/zooniverse/snapshot-serengeti

Learn about the whale shark project and report your sightings: https://www.whaleshark.org/

Explore underwater recordings of humpback whales and make your own discoveries: https://patternradio.withgoogle.com/

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

 

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

 

And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor, Video Director and Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

Image Credits: All the photos of the savannah by the SnapshotSerengeti Project
https://snapshotserengeti.org

Sogod Bay Whale Shark video by Miguel Hilario
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=husPSPJv80o

 

___________________________________________

 

References:


Duporge I, Isupova O, and Reece S (2019, April 4) Using Satellite Imagery and Machine Learning to Detect and Monitor Elephants. https://blog.hexagongeospatial.com/using-satellite-imagery-and-machine-learning-to-detect-and-monitor-elephants/

Norouzzadeh MS, Nguyen A, Kosmala M, Swanson A, Palmer MS, Packer C, and Clune J (2018). Automatically identifying, counting, and describing wild animals in camera-trap images with deep learning. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 115 (25): E5716-E5725. https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/37298550/6016780.pdf?sequence=1

Packer C, personal communication (2019, September 12).

Swanson AB, Kosmala M, Lintott CJ, Simpson RJ, Smith A, Packer C (2015) Snapshot Serengeti, high-frequency annotated camera trap images of 40 mammalian species in an African savanna. Scientific Data 2: 150026. https://www.nature.com/articles/sdata201526

Wildbook for Whale Sharks. https://www.whaleshark.org/

Direct download: ME_190_-_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:36pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

The way smartphones made many devices nonessential is a model for a new way to think about improving energy efficiency.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Dematerialization - using less (or no) material to deliver the same service
Energy conservation - using less energy by adjusting behavior (turning down your heat)
Energy efficiency - using less energy by using technology that requires less energy to perform the same function (insulating your house to keep warm while using less energy)
Energy intensity - energy consumption per unit of GDP (reduced by increasing energy efficiency)
Energy services - the useful functions you're able to perform by using energy (what we refer to as ‘function’)

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Phones are great for the environment https://www.wired.com/story/iphone-environment-consumption/
Nope, phones are bad for the environment https://theconversation.com/how-smartphones-are-heating-up-the-planet-92793
Amory Lovins on ‘integrative design’ (watch the video abstract) - https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta
The US would use 85% more energy if it weren’t for efficiency efforts since the 1970s https://thehill.com/blogs/congress-blog/energy-environment/308170-cheap-clean-and-easily-accessible-an-energy-resource
US energy intensity has halved since 1970 https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=10191
This chart shows just how much energy the US is wasting https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2018/05/visualizing-u-s-energy-consumption-in-one-chart

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)

Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:


Belkhir, L., & Elmeligi, A. 2018. Assessing ICT global emissions footprint: Trends to 2040 & recommendations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 177, 448-463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.12.239 

Bento, N. 2016. Calling for change? Innovation, diffusion, and the energy impacts of global mobile telephony. Energy Research & Social Science, 21, 84-100. https://repositorio.iscte-iul.pt/bitstream/10071/12732/5/Accepted_manuscript_Jun16.pdf 

Cullen, J. M., Allwood, J. M., & Borgstein, E. H. 2011. Reducing energy demand: what are the practical limits?. Environmental science & technology, 45(4), 1711-1718. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/es102641n

Fell, M. J. 2017. Energy services: A conceptual review. Energy research & social science, 27, 129-140. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2017.02.010  

Grubler, A., et al. 2018. A low energy demand scenario for meeting the 1.5 C target and sustainable development goals without negative emission technologies. Nature Energy, 3(6), 515. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41560-018-0172-6 

Lovins, A. B. 2018. How big is the energy efficiency resource?. Environmental Research Letters, 13(9), 090401. https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-9326/aad965/meta 

Popovich, N. March 8, 2019. America’s Light Bulb Revolution. https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/03/08/climate/light-bulb-efficiency.html 

Suckling, J., & Lee, J. 2015. Redefining scope: the true environmental impact of smartphones?. The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 20(8), 1181-1196. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11367-015-0909-4 

Visitor’s Guide. August 2007. Rocky Mountain Institute. https://d231jw5ce53gcq.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/Locations_LovinsHome_Visitors_Guide_2007.pdf 

Direct download: ME_187_-_d5_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:16am EDT

We ranked dragons based on how biologically and evolutionarily plausible they are.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Tetrapods: four-limbed (with a few exceptions, such as snakes which have vestigial limbs) animals constituting the superclass Tetrapoda.

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

What Happened to Smaug's Other Legs? 'Hobbit' FX Expert Explains http://www.mtv.com/news/1719502/smaug-hobbit-fx-explained/
How to fly your dragon, Journal of Physics Special topics https://journals.le.ac.uk/ojs1/index.php/pst/article/view/870/802

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Julián Gustavo Gómez (@ittakesii)

Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)

Video Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:


Tennekes, H. (2009). The simple science of flight: from insects to jumbo jets. MIT press.

Azuma, A., Azuma, S., Watanabe, I., & Furuta, T. (1985). Flight mechanics of a dragonfly. Journal of experimental biology, 116(1), 79-107.

Habib, M. (2013). Constraining the air giants: limits on size in flying animals as an example of constraint-based biomechanical theories of form. Biological Theory, 8(3), 245-252.

Direct download: ME_189_-_d3_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:13pm EDT

🌲🌲🌲 Go to https://teamtrees.org 🌲🌲🌲 Let's plant some trees! #TeamTrees

Trees can take an astounding amount of carbon out of the air, which is good, because we need to do that times a trillion.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________
To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
carbon: element that makes up half of tree wood by weight
___________________________________________
Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexreich) and Peter Reich
Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) and Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)
Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Le Quéré, C et al. Global Carbon Budget 2018. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 10, 2141–2194, 2018

JF Bastin, JF et al.The global tree restoration potential. Science 365 (6448), 76-79

Pillsbury NH; ML Kirkley. 1984. Equations for total, wood, and saw-log volume for thirteen California hardwoods. Res. Note PNW-RN-414. USDA, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 52 p

B. W. Griscom et al. 2017. Natural Climate Solutions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 114, 11645–11650.

Roe S et al. 2019. Contributon of the land sector to a 1.5C world. Nature Climate Change (in press)

Direct download: How_Much_Air_Can_A_Tree_Hold_TeamTrees.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 4:50pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

 

Learning a new language as an adult is harder than doing so as a child because adults usually aren’t as invested and often use the wrong strategies.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Second-Language Acquisition: The process of a language that’s not the speaker’s native language.
Bilingualism: The ability to speak and understand two languages.
Monitor Model: A group of hypotheses that propose that linguistic competence is only advanced when language is subconsciously acquired.
Sociolinguistics: The study of language in relation to all sorts of social factors.
Linguistic Investment: A motivation to learn a language based on the understanding that the speaker will acquire a wider range of symbolic and material resources, which will in turn increase the value of their cultural capital and social power.
Hyperpolyglot: A person who can speak and understand more than six languages.

___________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

 

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

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And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Editor and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Hartshorne, J., Tenenbaum, J., and Pinker, S. (2018). A critical period for second language acquisition: Evidence from 2/3 million English speakers. Cognition. 177: 263-277. Retrieved from: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0010027718300994

Bigelow, M., and Tarone, E. (2004). The Role of Literacy Level in Second Language Acquisition: Doesn't Who We Study Determine What We Know? TESOL Quarterly. 38(4): 689-700. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3588285?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents

Darvin, R. and Norton, B. (2015). Identity and a Model of Investment in Applied Linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 35: 36-56. Retrieved from: https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/annual-review-of-applied-linguistics/article/identity-and-a-model-of-investment-in-applied-linguistics/91EE4C7572272B233A16286768E0E5B8.

Pierce, B. (2015). Social Identity, Investment, and Language Learning. TESOL Quarterly. 29(1): 9-31. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3587803?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contents.

Derakshan, A. (2015). The Interference of First Language and Second Language Acquisition. Theory and Practice in Language Studies. 5(10):2112-211. Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/283524046_The_Interference_of_First_Language_and_Second_Language_Acquisition.

Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472.

Bigelow, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Department of Curriculum and Instruction. University of Minnesota.

Paesani, K. (2019). Personal Communication. The Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition. University of Minnesota.

Direct download: ME_185_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:19am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

The same enzyme that used to save us is now killing us because the body reactions it catalyzes now cause more harm than good.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Cyclooxygenase: An enzyme responsible for the production of thromboxane and prostaglandins.
Thromboxane: A lipid that acts as a platelet aggregator.
Platelets: Special non-nucleic blood cells that clump together to cause blood clots.
Prostaglandins: A lipid that causes vasodilation and inflammation.
Aspirin: A form of acetylsalicylic acid that acts as an NSAID.
NSAIDs: Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs that inhibit COX, and thus inflammation and clotting.

___________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits:

Script Writer and Narrator: David Goldenberg

Video Illustrators: Ever Salazar and Sarah Berman

Video Directors: David Goldenberg and Ever Salazar

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich and Julián Gómez

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Fitzpatrick, F. (2004). Cyclooxygenase Enzymes: Regulation and Function.Current Pharmaceutical Design. 10:577-588. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14965321.

Dubois, R., Abramson, S., Crofford, L., Gupta, R., Simon, L., Van De Putte, L., Lipsky, P. (1998). Cyclooxygenase in biology and disease. The FASEB Journal 212(12):1063-73. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9737710.

Havird, J., Kocot, K., Brannock, P., Cannon, J., Waits, D., Weese, D., Santos, S., Halanych, K. (2015). Reconstruction of cyclooxygenase evolution in animals suggests variable, lineage-specific duplications, and homologs with low sequence identity. 80(3-4):193-208. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25758350.

Ricciotti, E. and FitzGerald, G. (2011).Prostaglandins and Inflammation. ATVB In Focs. 31(5): 986–1000. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3081099/.

Rao, P., and Knaus, E. (2008). Evolution of Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs): Cyclooxygenase (COX) Inhibition and Beyond. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science. 11 (2): 81-110. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19203472.

Van't Hof, J., Duval, S., Misialek, J., Oldenburg, N., Jones, C., Eder, M., Luepker, R. (2019). Aspirin Use for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in an African American Population: Prevalence and Associations with Health Behavior Beliefs. Journal of Community Health. 44(3):561-568. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30895416.

Leupker, R. (2019). Personal Communication. Minnesota Heart Health Program. University of Minnesota.

Chipman, J. (2019). Personal Communication. DEpartment of Surgery. University of Minnesota.

Direct download: ME_182_-_d4_720.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:27am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

 

Because exercise isn't essential for short-term survival, we don't exercise enough, so we need to reincorporate purposeful physical activity into our lives.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Physical activity - any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that increases energy expenditure above a basal level
Exercise - a form of physical activity that is planned, structured, repetitive, and performed (primarily) with the goal of improving health or fitness
Recommended levels of physical activity (USA) - 150 minutes moderate-intensity or 75 minutes vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity per week, or an equivalent combination, and muscle-strengthening activities at least 2 days / week
Evolutionary medicine - a field that uses evolutionary theory & data to better understand (the origins of) health & disease
Mismatch conditions - health conditions that are more prevalent or severe today than in the past because the body is inadequately or insufficiently adapted to modern environmental conditions (likely including: cavities, type 2 diabetes, heart disease, osteoporosis)

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Forget Exercise. For Better Health, We Need Better Cities - https://qz.com/quartzy/1615436/the-solution-to-make-america-physically-active/
Magazine article about why exercise is hard - https://harvardmagazine.com/2016/09/born-to-rest
On an individual level, psychology is involved, too: https://fivethirtyeight.com/features/maybe-youd-exercise-more-if-it-didnt-feel-so-crappy/
Americans aren’t getting the message about exercising more & sitting less - https://time.com/5635730/exercise-sitting-data/
What healthy living and fixing climate change have in common - https://www.yaleclimateconnections.org/2019/05/planetary-health-and-12-years-to-act/
The wonder drug that's free - https://bit.ly/2lHAjsI
How to live to be 100+ (TED Talk) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ff40YiMmVkU

_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia (@garirius)

Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

___________________________________________

 

References:


Booth, F. W., et al. 2017. Role of inactivity in chronic diseases: evolutionary insight and pathophysiological mechanisms. Physiological reviews, 97(4), 1351-1402. https://bit.ly/2kEl4Ay

Ding, D., et al. 2016. The economic burden of physical inactivity: a global analysis of major non-communicable diseases. The Lancet, 388(10051), 1311-1324. https://bit.ly/2kfGVy8

Hoed, M. D., et al. 2013. Heritability of objectively assessed daily physical activity and sedentary behavior. The American journal of clinical nutrition, 98(5), 1317-1325. https://bit.ly/2lNxeHk

Lee, I. M., et al. 2012. Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy. The Lancet, 380(9838), 219-229. https://bit.ly/2ER2cT4

Lee, H. H., et al. 2016. The exercise–affect–adherence pathway: an evolutionary perspective. Frontiers in psychology, 7, 1285. https://bit.ly/2maYy2E

Lewis, B. A., personal communication. May 2019.

Lewis, B. A., et al. 2014. A randomized trial examining a physical activity intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression: the healthy mom trial. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 7(1), 42-49. https://bit.ly/2m9Xa0e

Lieberman, D. E. 2015. Is exercise really medicine? An evolutionary perspective. Current sports medicine reports, 14(4), 313-319. https://bit.ly/2xuQtFU

Rhodes, R. E., et al. 2018. Theories of physical activity behaviour change: A history and synthesis of approaches. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. https://bit.ly/2kaPBpk

US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans, 2nd edition. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2Q1eF09

US Department of Health & Human Services. 2018. 2018 Physical activity guidelines advisory committee scientific report. Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2FmVa9p

WHO. 2019. Prevalence of insufficient physical activity. Accessed May 2019. https://bit.ly/2TLLSuw

Direct download: ME_183_-_d6_720po.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:49am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

 

Ditches and drain pipes help crops survive but can negatively impact the broader landscape.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

__________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Waterlog - to saturate (a field) with water; a problem for most crops
Drainage - the removal of liquid (water) from an area
Ditch - a narrow channel dug in the ground, typically used for drainage alongside a road or the edge of a field
Drain tile - a pipe buried (beneath a field) for drainage. Originally made of ceramic tiles, now typically of corrugated plastic
Precision agriculture - putting corn seed + small dose of fertilizer/pesticides in hole in ground
Controlled drainage - the use of a water control structure to raise the depth of a drain tile outlet to hold water in the field when drainage isn't needed
Wood chip bioreactor - an underground trench filled with wood chips that provide carbon for bacteria that denitrify the water flowing through it
Saturated buffer - a strip on the edge of a field filled with plants & bacteria that can remove some nitrogen from the water flowing onto it from drain tiles
Denitrification - the removal of nitrogen from a substance (soil, air, or water) by chemical reduction, typically via bacteria
Wetland - an area of land where water covers the soil year-round or at certain times of year
Ecosystem services - the free benefits humans get from natural ecosystems

________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

Why plant roots need oxygen: https://bit.ly/2kgD0Be
Restored wetlands don’t recover their original ecosystem functions: https://bit.ly/2VrccKK
A guide to agricultural drainage: https://bit.ly/2jX1ChZ

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________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Script Editor and Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Illustrator and Director: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

Image Credits: Aerial view of treatment wetlands - Photo by David Hansen

 

________________________________________

 

References:

 

Christianson, L.E. & Helmers, M.J., 2011. Woodchip Bioreactors for Nitrate in Agricultural Drainage. Agriculture and Environment Extension Publications. 85. https://bit.ly/2kdXPx7

Davidson, N. C. 2014. How much wetland has the world lost? Long-term and recent trends in global wetland area. Marine and Freshwater Research, 65(10), 934-941. https://bit.ly/2lwLUKW

Davidson, N. C., Fluet-Chouinard, E., & Finlayson, C. M. 2018. Global extent and distribution of wetlands: trends and issues. Marine and Freshwater Research, 69(4), 620-627. https://doi.org/10.1071/MF17019

Discovery Farms MN. November 2016. Controlling Nutrient Loss in Tile Systems. https://bit.ly/2lTi8QI

Dolph, C. Pers. comm. June 2019

Erb, K. H., et al. 2017. Land management: data availability and process understanding for global change studies. Global change biology, 23(2), 512-533. https://bit.ly/2kgs7zn

Feick, S., Siebert, S., & Döll, P. 2005. A digital global map of artificially drained agricultural areas. https://bit.ly/2ksM3if

Finlay, J. Pers. comm. June 2019

Foufoula‐Georgiou, E., et al. 2015. The change of nature and the nature of change in agricultural landscapes: Hydrologic regime shifts modulate ecological transitions. Water Resources Research, 51(8), 6649-6671. https://bit.ly/2lu6Su7

Hansen, A. T., Dolph, C. L., Foufoula-Georgiou, E., & Finlay, J. C. 2018. Contribution of wetlands to nitrate removal at the watershed scale. Nature Geoscience, 11(2), 127. https://bit.ly/2lQe9nY

IPBES. 2019. Summary for policymakers of the global assessment report on biodiversity and ecosystem services of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. S. Díaz, et al. (eds.). IPBES secretariat, Bonn, Germany. Pg 11-12. https://bit.ly/2WX4c4U

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. 2005. Ecosystems and human well-being: Wetlands and Water Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, DC. https://bit.ly/2QYNd0v

Mustroph, A. 2018. Improving flooding tolerance of crop plants. Agronomy, 8(9), 160. https://bit.ly/2k1jzfu

UN FAO. Water uses. Accessed June 2019. https://bit.ly/1yOPz3f

US EPA. Why are Wetlands Important? Accessed June 2019. https://bit.ly/2gA3KoZ

Direct download: ME_178_-_d5_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:47am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

 

The decisions we make while we browse the internet are suprisingly similar to the ones animals make as they forage for food...here's why.

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Optimality models: tools used to evaluate the costs and benefits of different organismal features, traits, and characteristics, including behavior, in the natural world.
Optimal foraging theory: a behavioral ecology model that helps predict how an animal behaves when searching for food.
Marginal value theorem: an optimality model that describes the strategy that maximizes gain per unit time in systems where resources, and thus rate of returns, decrease with time.
Central place foraging: a model for analyzing how an organism traveling from a home base to a distant foraging location can maximize foraging rates.

___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

 

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer, Narrator, & Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)

Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Chi, EH, Pirolli, P, and Pitkow, J. (2000) The scent of a site: A system for analyzing and predicting information scent, usage, and usability of a web site. In: ACM CHI 2000 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.42.7499&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Fu, W and Pirolli, P. (2007) SNIF-ACT: a cognitive model of user navigation on the world wide web. Human-Computer Interactions 22(4), 355-412. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/0d96/d03cf822ea1584b468389b3f4bc39164d85f.pdf

Hayden, BY (2018) Economic choice: The foraging perspective. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 24: 1–6. https://experts.umn.edu/en/publications/economic-choice-the-foraging-perspective

Hayden, BY, Pearson, JM, and Platt, ML. (2011) Neuronal basis of sequential foraging decisions in a patchy environment. Nature Neuroscience 14: 933-939 https://www.nature.com/articles/nn.2856

Hall-McMaster, S and Luyckx F. (2019) Revisiting foraging approaches in neuroscience. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience 19 (2): 225-230. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13415-018-00682-z

Pyke, G and Stephens, DW. (2019) Optimal foraging theory: application and inspiration in human endeavors outside biology. In JC Choe (ed.), Encyclopedia of animal behavior . 2nd edn, vol. 2, Elsevier Academic Press, Amsterdam, pp. 217-222. https://researchers.mq.edu.au/en/publications/optimal-foraging-theory-application-and-inspiration-in-human-ende

Van Koppen, PJ and Jansen, RWJ. (1998) The road to robbery: Travel patterns in commercial robberies . British Journal of Criminology 38: 230-246. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Peter_Koppen/publication/270802169_The_road_to_the_robbery_Travel_patterns_in_commercial_robberies/links/569e080008ae950bd7a81fc2/The-road-to-the-robbery-Travel-patterns-in-commercial-robberies.pdf

Direct download: ME_181_-_d3_720p_vlc.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:25am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

Observing the effects of microbes using satellites can give us all sorts of useful information about life on Earth ... and other planets too.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

And thanks to researchers from the University of Wisconsin and the University of Nebraska-Lincoln who help generate airborne data used in Professor Jeannine Cavender-Bares' studies. ___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:

Microbe - an organism (such as a bacterium or protozoan) of microscopic or ultramicroscopic size.

Remote sensing - the scanning of the earth , especially by satellite or high-flying aircraft, in order to obtain information about it.

Pathogen - a bacterium, virus, or other microbe that can cause disease.

Chlorophyll - a green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis.

Phytoplankton - photosynthesizing microscopic biotic organisms that inhabit the upper sunlit layer of almost all oceans and bodies of fresh water on Earth.

Cholera - an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea.

Evaporite - a natural salt or mineral deposit left after the evaporation of a body of water.

Microbially induced sedimentary structures (MISS) - primary sedimentary structures formed by the interaction of microbes with sediment and physical agents of erosion, deposition, and transportation. ___________________________________________

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And download our videos on iTunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n ___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii)

Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)

Video Director: Julián Gómez, David Goldenberg

Video Narrator: Julián Gómez

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder ___________________________________________

References:

Mirik M, Jones DC, Price JA, Workneh F, Ansley RJ, Rush CM. Satellite remote sensing of wheat infected by wheat streak mosaic virus. Plant Disease. 2011 Jan;95(1):4-12.

Lowe A, Harrison N, French AP. Hyperspectral image analysis techniques for the detection and classification of the early onset of plant disease and stress. Plant methods. 2017 Dec;13(1):80.

Lobitz B, Beck L, Huq A, Wood B, Fuchs G, Faruque AS, Colwell R. Climate and infectious disease: use of remote sensing for detection of Vibrio cholerae by indirect measurement. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2000 Feb 15;97(4):1438-43.

de Magny GC, Mozumder PK, Grim CJ, Hasan NA, Naser MN, Alam M, Sack RB, Huq A, Colwell RR. Role of zooplankton diversity in Vibrio cholerae population dynamics and in the incidence of cholera in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. Appl. Environ. Microbiol.. 2011 Sep 1;77(17):6125-32.

Colwell RR. Global climate and infectious disease: the cholera paradigm. Science. 1996 Dec 20;274(5295):2025-31.

Lausch A, Erasmi S, King D, Magdon P, Heurich M. Understanding forest health with remote sensing-part II—a review of approaches and data models. Remote Sensing. 2017 Feb 5;9(2):129.

Meng J, Li S, Wang W, Liu Q, Xie S, Ma W. Mapping forest health using spectral and textural information extracted from spot-5 satellite images. Remote Sensing. 2016 Aug 31;8(9):719.

Baldridge AM, Farmer JD, Moersch JE. Mars remote‐sensing analog studies in the Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California. Journal of Geophysical Research: Planets. 2004 Dec;109(E12).

Barbieri R, Stivaletta N. Continental evaporites and the search for evidence of life on Mars. Geological Journal. 2011 Nov;46(6):513-24.

Crowley JK, Hook SJ. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. 1996 Jan 10;101(B1):643-60.

Noffke N. Ancient sedimentary structures in the [less than] 3.7 Ga Gillespie Lake Member, Mars, that resemble macroscopic morphology, spatial associations, and temporal succession in terrestrial microbialites. Astrobiology. 2015 Feb 1;15(2):169-92.

Landis GA. Searching for life: the case for Halobacteria on Mars. InAIP Conference Proceedings 2001 Feb 2 (Vol. 552, No. 1, pp. 25-28). AIP.

Direct download: ME_180_-_d6-converted.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:03am EDT

Aquatic cyanobacteria first oxygenated earth’s air, making human life possible; now, due to our actions, cyanobacteria are madly blooming once more, poisoning our coasts in the process

 

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

 

___________________________________________

 

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords: 

Cyanobacteria: aquatic photosynthesizing bacteria often erroneously call blue-green algae
Blue-green algae: incorrect name often used for cyanobacteria because they are blue-green in appearance and can be confused with algae   
Dead zone: coastal area where cyanobacteria blooms lead to anaerobic conditions, killing fish and other organisms
Mycrosystins: a class of toxic compounds released by certain cyanobacteria

___________________________________________


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Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ

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And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

 

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer: Peter Reich

Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)

Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

Video Narrator: Julián Gómez (@ittakesii)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

 

References:

 

Bargu S et al.  Mississippi River diversions and phytoplankton dynamics in deltaic Gulf of Mexico estuaries: A review. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science 221:39-52 (2019).

Berman-Frank I, Lundgren P, Falkowski P. Nitrogen fixation and photosynthetic oxygen evolution in cyanobacteria. Research in Microbiology 154, 157–164 (2003)

Carey CC et al. Eco-physiological adaptations that favour freshwater cyanobacteria in a changing climate. Water Research  46, 1394-1407 (2012)

Garcia AK et al.  Reconstructed ancestral enzymes suggest long-term cooling of Earth’s photic zone since the Archean. Proc Natl Acad Sci 114:4619-4624 (2017)

Glass JB, Wolfe-Simon F, Anbar AD.  Coevolution of metal availability and nitrogen assimilation in cyanobacteria and algae. Geobiology 7, 100-123 (2009).

Lyons TW, CT Reinhard, NJ Planavsky. The rise of oxygen in Earth’s early ocean and atmosphere Nature 506, 307–315 (2014).

Planavsky NJ et al.  The evolution of the marine phosphate reservoir. Nature 467, 1088-1090 (2010)

Soo RM et al. On the origins of oxygenic photosynthesis and aerobic respiration in Cyanobacteria. Science 355, 1436–1440 (2017)

Tromas N et al. Characterising and predicting cyanobacterial blooms in an 8-year amplicon sequencing time course. ISME J 11:1746-1763 (2017)

Direct download: ME_179_720p.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:17pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

The technology we use to keep cool is heating the world in a vicious feedback cycle, so we need to improve it and use it less.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with this keyword: 

Refrigerant - a substance used in air conditioners & refrigerators for its ability to change phases and transfer heat

___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: 

How AC changed the world: https://www.bbc.com/news/business-39735802
People use AC to make their homes feel like Africa: http://bit.ly/2Y9fOH3

_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd

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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6

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And download our videos on itunes:  https://goo.gl/sfwS6n

___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer & Video Narrator: Alex Reich

Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius

Video Director: Julián Gustavo Gómez

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Sarah Berman 

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:


European Commission. Climate-friendly alternatives to HFCs. https://ec.europa.eu/clima/policies/f-gas/alternatives_en Accessed May 2019.

Gunawardena, K. R.,  et al. 2017. Utilising green and bluespace to mitigate urban heat island intensity. Science of the Total Environment, 584, 1040-1055. http://bit.ly/2GbBuHY

Graves, R. Pers. comm. May 2019.

International Energy Agency. 2017. Space cooling: More access, more comfort, less energy. https://www.iea.org

International Energy Agency. 2018. The Future of Cooling: Opportunities for energy- efficient air conditioning. https://www.iea.org/futureofcooling/

International Institute of Refrigeration. Nov 2017. The impact of the refrigeration sector on climate change. http://bit.ly/30A56Xh

Keeler, B. L., et al. 2019. Social-ecological and technological factors moderate the value of urban nature. Nature Sustainability, 2(1), 29. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41893-018-0202-1

Ministry of the Environment, Japan. 2016. Recovery, Recycling & Destruction of CFC, HCFC, & HFC. https://www.env.go.jp/en/earth/ozone/leaf2016/04.pdf

Pakbaznia, E., & Pedram, M. 2009. Minimizing data center cooling and server power costs. In Proceedings of the 2009 ACM/IEEE international symposium on Low power electronics and design (pp. 145-150). http://bit.ly/2JDL5bN

Reardon, C. & Clarke, R. 2013. Passive cooling. Australian Government: Your Home. http://bit.ly/2LNMmj7

Sachar, S., et al. 2018. Solving the Global Cooling Challenge: How to Counter the Climate Threat from Room Air Conditioners. Rocky Mountain Institute. www.rmi.org/insight/solving_the_global_cooling_challenge

Sadineni, S. B., et al. 2011. Passive building energy savings: A review of building envelope components. Renewable and sustainable energy reviews, 15(8), 3617-3631. http://bit.ly/2G9uGec

Sivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. ERL, 8(1), 014050. http://bit.ly/2SbyOix

Zhang, X., & Caldeira, K. 2015. Time scales and ratios of climate forcing due to thermal versus carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels. GRL, 42(11), 4548-4555. http://bit.ly/2LS8id0

Zhao, L., et al. 2015. Reduction of potential greenhouse gas emissions of room air-conditioner refrigerants: a life cycle carbon footprint analysis. Journal of Cleaner Production, 100, 262-268. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.03.063

Direct download: The_Cruel_Irony_Of_Air_Conditioning.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:41am EDT

Go to https://NordVPN.com/minuteearth to get 75% off a 3 year plan and use code MINUTEEARTH for an extra month for free. Protect yourself online today.
Basic research can seem wasteful, but it's actually a great economic investment.
Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________

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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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___________________________________________

Credits:
Script Writer, Video Director, Narrator: Kate Yoshida
Video Illustrators: Sarah Berman & Ever Salazar
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Evoniuk, G, Kuhn, and C Schanberg, SM. (1979) The effect of tactile stimulation on serum growth hormone and tissue ornithine decarboxylase activity during maternal deprivation in rat pups. Communications in Psychopharmacology 3:363–370. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/548216

Field T, Diego M, and M Hernandez-Reif (2010) Preterm infant massage therapy research: a review. Infant Behavioral Development 33: 115-124. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2844909/

Jones, CI, and JC Williams (1998) Measuring the Social Return to R&D. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(5): 1119-1135. https://academic.oup.com/qje/article-abstract/113/4/1119/1916988?redirectedFrom=fulltext

Press, WH. (2013) What's So Special about Science (And How Much Should We Spend on It?), Science 342: 817-822. https://science.sciencemag.org/content/342/6160/817.full

Salter, AJ and BR Martin. (2001) The economic benefits of publicly funded basic research: a critical review. Research Policy 30:509-532. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0048733300000913

Schanberg SM, Evoniuk G and CM Kuhn. (1984) Tactile and nutritional aspects of maternal care. specific regulators of neuroendocrine function and cellular development. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 175, 135–146. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.3181/00379727-175-41779?journalCode=ebma

Direct download: Why_We_Should_Invest_In_Rat_Massage.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:40pm EDT

This video was made in partnership with the Swiss National Science Foundation. To see more videos about the importance of basic research, go to https://www.youtube.com/SNSFinfo
↓↓↓ Or watch the THREE OTHER VIDEOS we made with SNSF↓↓↓
What’s intelligent about artificial intelligence? - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xR6j9TLZdAw
Why kids skip school (& what to do about it) - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q-MwcsyMk2k
Why you should abandon some of your dreams - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Qy8pBaugRY

Cancer has proven hard to beat, but a promising new type of treatment can use the disease's own powers against it.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Monoclonal antibodies: antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell
Hybridoma: a hybrid cell used as the basis for the production of antibodies in large amounts for diagnostic or therapeutic use
___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

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References:

Alberts B, Johnson A, Lewis J, et al. Molecular Biology of the Cell. 4th edition. New York: Garland Science; 2002. B Cells and Antibodies. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK26884/

Ecker DM, Jones SD, Levine HL (2015). The therapeutic monoclonal antibody market. MAbs 7(1): 9-14. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4622599/

Kohler, G. and Milstein, C. (1975) Continuous cultures of fused cells secreting antibody of predefined specificity. Nature 256: 495-497. https://www.nature.com/articles/256495a0

Direct download: How_to_Turn_Cancer_Against_Itself.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:29am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/
Morocco has 3/4 of the world’s known reserves of rock phosphate, our main source of phosphorus, so Morocco may be key to our long-term ability to grow food.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Phosphorus - a chemical element used in explosives, matches, and fertilizers (as it is a key nutrient for plant growth)
Phosphate rock - a sedimentary rock containing high amounts of phosphate minerals - the main source of agricultural P fertilizer
Phosphate - a salt or ester of phosphoric acid, containing PO4 -3 or a related anion or a group
4 Rs of Nutrient Management - Right fertilizer source, at the Right rate, at the Right time, and in the Right place
Reserve - the part of a resource that could be economically extracted or produced at the moment
Resource - a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth’s crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible
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If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Article about conflict in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2ZjYjQW
Radio about Phosphorus mines in Western Sahara - http://bit.ly/2IFv8kC
Magazine about 350th Anniv of Phosphorus Discovery - http://bit.ly/2wLw0i3
________________________________________

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___________________________________________
Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor (@jessika_arts)
Video Director: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, Julián Gómez, Sarah Berman, Arcadi Garcia Rius
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________
References:

Amundson, R., et al 2015. Soil and human security in the 21st century. Science, 348(6235), 1261071. http://bit.ly/2R0dRXe

Bailey, J. Pers. comm. Feb 2019

Chowdhury, R. B., et al. 2017. Key sustainability challenges for the global phosphorus resource, their implications for global food security, and options for mitigation. J. of Cleaner Prod., 140, 945-963. http://agri.ckcest.cn/ass/NK001-20170130004.pdf

CIA. The World Factbook. Country Comparison: Crude Oil - Proved Reserves. Accessed January 2019. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2244rank.html

Cooper, J., et al. 2011. The future distribution and production of global phosphate rock reserves. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 57, 78-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.resconrec.2011.09.009

Cordell, D., et al. 2009. The story of phosphorus: global food security and food for thought. Global env change, 19(2), 292-305. 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009

Cordell, D., & White, S. 2014. Life's bottleneck: sustaining the world's phosphorus for a food secure future. Ann Rev of Env & Res, 39, 161-188. 10.1146/annurev-environ-010213-113300

Cordell, D., & White, S. 2015. Tracking phosphorus security: indicators of phosphorus vulnerability in the global food system. Food Sec, 7(2), 337-350. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-015-0442-0

Elser, J., & Bennett, E. 2011. Phosphorus cycle: a broken biogeochemical cycle. Nature, 478(7367), 29. http://bit.ly/2WvUark

Filippelli, G. M. 2011. Phosphate rock formation and marine phosphorus geochemistry: the deep time perspective. Chemosphere, 84(6), 759-766. http://bit.ly/2X0mTcf

MacDonald, G. K., et al. 2011. Agronomic phosphorus imbalances across the world's croplands. PNAS, 108(7), 3086-3091. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/108/7/3086.full.pdf

Peterson, H. Pers comm. Jan 2019

Rosen, C. Pers comm. Jan 2019

Sattari, S. Z., et al. 2012. Residual soil phosphorus as the missing piece in the global phosphorus crisis puzzle. PNAS, 109(16), 6348-6353. https://www.pnas.org/content/pnas/109/16/6348.full.pdf

Statista.com. Rare earth reserves worldwide by country 2018. Accessed January 2019. https://www.statista.com/statistics/277268/rare-earth-reserves-by-country/

Tilman, D., et al. 2002. Agricultural sustainability and intensive production practices. Nature, 418(6898), 671. http://bit.ly/2KCL3To

Direct download: This_Country_Has_Something_Everyone_Else_Wants.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:31am EDT

Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days here: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. And use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off a yearly membership.
Humans can hold our breath longer than we think by taking advantage of our body’s innate survival instincts - and then ignoring them.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Static Apnea: Holding your breath without swimming or moving.
Apneist: Someone who competes in apnea-related contests.
Fight or Flight Response: A set of physiological responses to a perceived mortal threat.
Mammalian Dive Reflex: A set of physiological responses to immersion that overrides the basic homeostatic reflexes.
Diaphragm: A strip of skeletal muscles underneath the lungs that contracts and flattens when you inhale. It starts spasming as part of involuntary breathing movements when the body starts to run out of oxygen.
Spleen: An organ that primarily acts as a blood filter that can deflate to return blood to the circulatory system.
Carbon Dioxide Tension: The increase in CO2 pressure in the blood as oxygen levels fall.
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Mike Boyd learns how to hold his breath for 4 minutes: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6iyDEWG1CU
_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman (@sarahjberman)
Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius, Melissa Hayes
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Bain, A., Drvis, I., Dujic, Z., MacLeod, D., Ainslie, P. (2018). Physiology of static breath holding in elite apneists. Experimental Physiology. 103 (635-651). Retrieved from: https://physoc.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1113/EP086269.

Hutchinson, A. (2018). Pushing the Limits of Extreme Breath-Holding. New Yorker. Retrieved from: https://www.newyorker.com/tech/annals-of-technology/pushing-the-limits-of-extreme-breath-holding.

Panneton, W. M. (2013). The Mammalian Diving Response: An Enigmatic Reflex to Preserve Life? Physiology. 28(5): 284–297. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768097/.


Petrović, Branko (2019). Personal Communication.

Schagatay E, van Kampen M, Emanuelsson S, Holm B. (2000). Effects of physical and apnea training on apneic time and the diving response in humans. European Journal of Applied Physiology. 82(3) : 161-9. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10929209.

Schagatay, Erika (2019). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden. Department of Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University

Direct download: The_Secrets_of_Extreme_Breath_Holding.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:15am EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! https://twin-cities.umn.edu/
Lyme disease is spreading like wildfire around the world: here's why.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
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If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.cdc.gov/lyme/index.html
_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius (@garirius)
Video Directors: David Goldenberg & Julián Gómez (@ittakesii)
Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Brunner, J. L., LoGiudice, K., & Ostfeld, R. S. 2008. Estimating reservoir competence of Borrelia burgdorferi hosts: prevalence and infectivity, sensitivity, and specificity. Journal of medical entomology, 45(1), 139-147. http://bit.ly/2ZmxIDP

Keesing, F., et al. 2009. Hosts as ecological traps for the vector of Lyme disease. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Bological Sciences, 276(1675), 3911-3919. https://royalsocietypublishing.org/do...

Kilpatrick, A. M. et al. 2017 Lyme disease ecology in a changing world: consensus, uncertainty and critical gaps for improving control. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 372: 20160117. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2016.0117

Magnaval, J. F., et al. 2016. A serological survey about zoonoses in the verkhoyansk area, northeastern siberia (sakha republic, Russian federation). Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 16(2), 103-109. https://doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2015.1828

Ostfeld, R. S., et al. 2014. Life history and demographic drivers of reservoir competence for three tick-borne zoonotic pathogens. PLoS ONE. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.....

Ostfeld, R. S., Levi, T. , Keesing, F. , Oggenfuss, K. and Canham, C. D. (2018), Tick‐borne disease risk in a forest food web. Ecology, 99: 1562-1573. doi:10.1002/ecy.2386

Robinson, S. J., et al. 2015. Disease risk in a dynamic environment: the spread of tick-borne pathogens in Minnesota, USA. EcoHealth, 12(1), 152-163. https://dx.doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10393-0...

Scott, J. D. et al. 2017. Lyme disease Bacterium, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, detected in multiple tick species at Kenora, Ontario, Canada. J. Bact. Parasitol, 8. http://bit.ly/2ZjOXWd

Vandenesch, A., et al. 2014. Incidence and hospitalisation rates of Lyme borreliosis, France, 2004 to 2012. Eurosurveillance, 19(34), 20883. http://bit.ly/2Dn693Q

Wu, X. B., et al. 2013. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China. Parasites & Vectors, 6(1), 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-119

Direct download: Why_Is_Lyme_Disease_Getting_Worse.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:49am EDT

We built the Tree of Life Explorer! Check it out: https://labs.minutelabs.io/Tree-of-Life-Explorer/
And watch this video to learn more about it: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3eE2fCLay-Q

With our current understanding of evolutionary history and our strategy of cladistic naming, if we wanted to have both goldfish and sharks under a single group called "fish", then mammals must also be called fish.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
- Phylogenetic tree: a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species
- Cladogram: a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms
- Monophyletic group (or clade): a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor
- Paraphyletic group: all of the descendants of a common ancestor minus one or more monophyletic groups
- Similarity trap: people can name different species the same thing, only to find out they aren’t even closely related. We made a video about this phenomana: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=flVK-rbeT4g
___________________________________________


Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits:
Script Writer: Jasper Palfree
Script Editor: David Goldenberg
Video Illustrator: Sarah Berman
Video Director: Ever Salazar
Video Narrator: Ever Salazar & Jasper Palfree
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Weinstein, Bret (2016). On Being a Fish. Inference, Volume 2, Issue 3 September. https://inference-review.com/article/on-being-a-fish

Lahti, David (2016). An Ambivalent Amphibian (In response to "On Being a Fish"). Volume 2, Issue 4
December. https://inference-review.com/letter/an-ambivalent-amphibian

Podani, János (2013). Tree thinking, time and topology:
Comments on the interpretation of tree diagrams in
evolutionary/phylogenetic systematics. Cladistics Volume 29, Issue 3. May http://real.mtak.hu/9727/1/PodaniOnTreesFINAL.pdf

Direct download: You_Are_A_Fish.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:06am EDT

This video is in partnership with Bill and Melinda Gates. You can check out the Gates Annual Letter here: https://b-gat.es/2GxIwba

Concrete is responsible for 8% of humanity’s carbon emissions because making its key ingredient - cement - chemically releases CO2, and because we burn fossil fuels to make it happen.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:

Portland cement - the most common type of cement used worldwide, made with limestone
Limestone - a hard sedimentary rock, composed mainly of calcium carbonate (which is also in shells & eggs)
Cement - a powder used in construction that’s made by grinding clinker with other minerals and mixing with water to form a paste that sticks to sand, gravel or crushed stone to make concrete
Concrete - a building material made by mixing cement with water to form a paste that gains body through fillers like sand and gravel
Clinker - an intermediate marble-sized product in cement production created by sintering limestone with clay and other things
Sinter - to turn a powdery solid into a single mass by heating it without liquefaction
Mortar - another building material (used to adhere bricks or stones together) made by mixing cement with water and sand
Calcination - the process of heating a substance to a high temperature, but below its melting point, so it thermally decomposes (like limestone into lime & CO2)
Process emissions - the name for the CO2 that comes from limestone when it thermally decomposes

___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):

Script Writer & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)

Video Illustrator: Adam Thompson

Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)

With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, Arcadi Garcia Rius

Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Andrew, R. M. 2018. Global CO2 emissions from cement production. Earth System Science Data, 10(1), 195. https://www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/10/195/2018/essd-10-195-2018.pdf

Benhelal, E., et al. 2013. Global strategies and potentials to curb CO2 emissions in cement industry. Journal of cleaner production, 51, 142-161. http://www.academia.edu/download/39977040/1-s2.0-S0959652612006129-main.pdf

Beyond Zero Emissions.  August 2017. Zero Carbon Industry Plan: Rethinking Cement. Available for download at http://bze.org.au

Davis, S.J., et al. 2018. Net-zero emissions energy systems. Science, 360(6396), eaas9793. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt16109441/qt16109441.pdf

Lehne, J., & Preston., F. June 2018. Making Concrete Change: Innovation in Low-carbon Cement and Concrete. Chatham House Report. http://bit.ly/2Vlb3oC

Timperley, J. September 13 2018. Q&A: Why cement emissions matter for climate change. https://www.carbonbrief.org/qa-why-cement-emissions-matter-for-climate-change

World Bank. 2019. World Development Indicators: Urban population. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.URB.TOTL

Direct download: The_Problem_With_Concrete.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:14pm EDT

Scientists are trying to figure out if they can predict big earthquakes by simulating small quakes in labs and studying big quakes under the ocean. Thanks to the University of Rhode Island for sponsoring this video.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Earthquake: A violent shaking of the earth, usually due to movements of tectonic plates under the earth’s crust.
Seismometer: An instrument that detects changes in the up-down motion of the earth.
Seismic body waves: Higher frequency waves released by earthquakes that can move through solid rock.
Seismic surface waves: Lower frequency waves released by earthquakes that move along the ground and cause most damage.
Earthquake Early Warning System: A network of strategically placed seismometers that trigger emergency warning systems in particular areas when they detect large seismic body waves.
Evacuation Clearance Time: The time needed to evacuate a particular population to safety.
Earthquake Precursor: An anomalous event that gives an effective warning of an impending earthquake.
Transform Faults: Faults where two tectonic plates slide past each other.
___________________________________________


Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor, Video Director & Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant 1654416. Any opinions, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
___________________________________________

References:

Geller, R. (1997). Earthquake Prediction: A Critical Review. Geophysical Journal International. 131 (425-450). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/gji/article/131/3/425/2138719

Wei, M. (2018). Seismic Behavior on Oceanic Transform Faults at the East Pacific Rise. Transform Plate Boundaries and Fracture Zones. Elsevier. Retrieved from: https://www.elsevier.com/books/transform-plate-boundaries-and-fracture-zones/duarte/978-0-12-812064-4

Hsu, Y., and Peeta, S. (2015). Clearance Time Estimation for Incorporating Evacuation Risk in Routing Strategies for Evacuation Operation. Networks and Spatial Economics. 15 (743-764). Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11067-013-9195-5

Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314.

Wei, M. (2019). Personal Communication. Graduate School of Oceanography. University of Rhode Island.

Direct download: Why_Earthquakes_Are_So_Hard_To_Predict.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 8:26am EDT

Try Dashlane Premium free for 30 days: https://www.dashlane.com/MinuteEarth. Use the coupon code ‘MinuteEarth’ to get 10% off Dashlane Premium.

Because of the chaotic way fingerprints develop and the multiplying effect of compound probability, it's basically impossible for any two fingers to have matching prints.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Fingerprint: The markings on the skin on the last joint of the thumb or finger.
Fingerprint Ridges: The raised lines on the fingerprint.
Fingerprint Pattern: The main design in the middle of the fingerprint; usually a loop, whorl, or arch.
Volar Pad: The mass of stem cells that grows under the fingers during a particular time during fetal development that is responsible for determining the pattern of the fingerprint.
Fingerprint Minutiae: The various tiny points in each fingertip where the ridgelines get blocked or split.
Compound Probability: The likelihood that independent events will occur simultaneously.
___________________________________________


Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia & Ever Salazar
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

References:

Kucken, M. and Newell, A. (2005). Fingerprint Formation. Journal of Theoretical Biology. 235 (71-83). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15833314.

Kucken, M. (2007). Models for Fingerprint Pattern Formation. Forensic Science International. 171 (85-96). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17459625.

Kucken, Michael (2018). Personal Communication. Center of Information Services and High Performance Computing. TU Dresden.

Wertheim, K. (2011). Fingerprint Sourcebook: Embryology and Morphology of the Friction Skin Ridge. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=247303

Direct download: Why_Are_Your_Fingerprints_Unique.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00pm EDT

Thanks to my grandmother for inspiring this story, and to my mother for helping make it. If you like our videos, please consider supporting MinuteEarth on Patreon! - Alex

Bird poop was the gateway fertilizer that turned humanity onto the imported-chemical-based farming system of modern agriculture.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Guano: seabird (or bat) poop. From the indigenous Peruvian word “wanu”, meaning “manure that’s good for fertilizer"
Manure: animal poop used as fertilizer (typically cow or pig poop)
Fertilizer: a chemical-containing substance added to soil to provide nutrients to plants
Nitrate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element nitrogen (sodium nitrate)
Phosphate mining: digging up the naturally occurring solid form of the element phosphorus
Haber-Bosch process: the major industrial method to take nitrogen gas out of the air and convert it to ammonia
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
Our fertilizer is killing us. Here's a fix: https://grist.org/article/billionaires-and-bacteria-are-racing-to-save-us-from-death-by-fertilizer/
Why bird poop is white: https://www.audubon.org/news/what-makes-bird-poop-white
In 1856 US Congress enabled US citizens to take over unclaimed islands with guano on them: http://americanhistory.si.edu/norie-atlas/guano-islands-act
Guano is in demand again today: https://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/30/world/americas/30peru.html
_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Video Director, and Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Jesse Agar (@JesseAgarYT)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits: Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr

___________________________________________

References:

Canby, T.Y. 2002. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. VI. Introduction: Pg. 26-27. Sandy Spring Museum.

Cushman, G.T. 2013. Guano and the opening of the Pacific World: A global ecological history. Cambridge University Press.

Cushman, G.T., personal communication, October 2018.

Farquhar, W.H. 1884. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. I, Pg. xxix-xxx. Baltimore: Cushings & Bailey. http://bit.ly/2QOWGKr

Lorimor, J., Powers, W., Sutton, A. 2004. Manure Characteristics. MWPS-18, Section 1. Second Edition. Table 6. Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa. http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/files/ManureCharacteristicsMWPS-18_1.pdf

Robinson, M.B. April 26, 2007. In Once-Rural Montgomery, a Rich History. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/25/AR2007042501342.html

S. Sands & Son. 1875. The American Farmer: Devoted to Agriculture, Horticulture and Rural Life. Vol. 4, Issue 12, pg. 417-418. Baltimore. https://play.google.com/books/reader?id=ul1TAAAAYAAJ&hl=en&pg=GBS.PA417

Stabler, H.O. 1950. The Annals of Sandy Spring, Vol. V, Pg. 43. American Publishing Company.

Szpak, P., et al. 2012. Stable isotope biogeochemistry of seabird guano fertilization: results from growth chamber studies with Maize (Zea mays). PloS one, 7(3), e33741. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033741

Thanks also to the Sandy Spring Museum.

Direct download: The_Bird_Poop_That_Changed_The_World.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:12am EDT

To get your free 30-day trial of CuriosityStream, go to https://curiositystream.com/minute and use the code "minute".

Just like the names of products and companies, animals' names can affect how we feel about them...and changing the name of a species might actually help us save it.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.
___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer, Video Director & Narrator: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits: Hong Kong's Golden Beach Dolphin Plaza by Wikimedia user WiNg
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:HK_Golden_Beach_Dolphin_Plaza.jpg

African Wild Dog by Mathias Appel
https://www.flickr.com/photos/mathiasappel/25233930273

Family Dog by Richard Elzey
https://www.flickr.com/photos/elzey/6307525340/

Sloth by Régis Leroy
https://www.flickr.com/photos/regilero/8727491349

Racoon Just Checking the Trash by Julie Corsi
https://www.flickr.com/photos/corsinet/2967516964/

Scorpion by Steve Slater
https://www.flickr.com/photos/wildlife_encounters/11026569913/

Snake by Photo by Jessica Bolser/USFWS
https://www.flickr.com/photos/usfwsmidwest/11193222776/

___________________________________________

References:

Jacquet, J. L. and Pauly, D. (2008) Trade secrets: renaming and mislabeling of seafood. Marine Policy 32: 309-318. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0308597X07000760

Karaffa, P.T., M.M. Draheim, and Parsons, E.C.M. (2012) What’s in a name? Do species’ names impact student support for conservation? Human Dimensions of Wildlife 17: 308-310. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2012.676708?journalCode=uhdw20

Parsons, E.C.M., personal communication, October 2018.

Rasmussen, G.S.A. (1999) Livestock predation by the painted hunting dog Lycaon pictus in a cattle ranching region of Zimbabwe: a case study. Biological Conservation 88: 133–139. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0006320798000068?via%3Dihub

Sarasa M., Alasaad S., and Pérez J.M. (2012) Common names of species, the curious case of Capra pyrenaica and the concomitant steps towards the 'wild-to-domestic' transformation of a flagship species and its vernacular names. Biodiversity and Conservation 21:1–12. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-011-0172-3

Scott, C. (2015) Otter social science research: An evaluation of the general public’s knowledge of otter species. (Master’s thesis) George Mason University, Fairfax, VA. Retrieved from digilib.gmu.edu/ xmlui/handle/1920/10282

Wright, A., Veríssimo, D., Pilfold, K., Parsons, E. C. M., Ventre, K., Cousins, J., et al. (2015). Competitive outreach in the 21st Century: why we need conservation marketing. Ocean & Coastal Management 115: 41–48. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0964569115001829

Direct download: These_Names_Can_Kill_Animals.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:28am EDT

To start using Tab for a Cause, go to: https://tab.gladly.io/minuteearth2/
Rates of appendicitis vary around the world, likely due to the forces of modernization.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

**Appendix** - There are many other unforeseen health changes that seem to be related to the forces of modernization, like the increase in rates of diabetes, Crohn’s disease, and ADHD. Those changes likely stem from all sorts of complicated genetic and environmental interactions - including changes in diet, exposure to pollution, and access to hygiene - that researchers haven’t yet figured out.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Fecalith: A stony mass of feces inside a person’s intestinal tract.
Appendix: A tube-shaped sac at the bottom of a person’s intestinal tract.
Appendicitis: A painful inflammation of the appendix.
Fiber: Plant-derived dietary material that’s resistant to certain digestive enzymes.
Tertiary Food Processing: Commercial production of food that often contains synthetic elements or an overabundance of certain salts and sugars.
“Western Diet”: A collective term for a diet high in fat, cholesterol, protein, sugar, and salt, that often involves frequent consumption of “fast food”.
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If you liked this week’s video, you might also like: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=r9amif1DQMc
_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Writer, Editor, Director & Narrator: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual) with Adam Thompson
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Addiss, D., Shaffer, N., Fowler, B., Tauxe, R. (1990). The epidemiology of appendicitis and appendectomy in the United States. The American Journal of Epidemiology.132:5 (910-1925). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2239906

Fares, A. (2014). Summer Appendicitis. Annals of Medical and Health Science Research. 4(1): 18-21. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3952290


Ferris, M., Quan, S., Kaplan, B., Molodecky, N., Ball, C., Chernoff, G., Bhala, N., Ghosh, S., Dixon, E., Ng, S., Kaplan, G. (2017). The Global Incidence of Appendicitis: A Systematic Review of Population-based Studies. Annals of Surgery. 266:2 (237-241). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28288060

Kaplan, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, The Gastrointestinal REsearch Group, University of Calgary.

Ramdass, M., Young Sing, Q., Milne, D., Mooteeram, J., and Barrow, S. (2015). Association between the appendix and the fecalith in adults. Canadian Journal of Surgery. 58 (10-14). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4309758/

Direct download: The_Mystery_of_The_Exploding_Appendix.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 10:17am EDT

We answer your burning questions in our first-ever Q&A video. Thanks for asking, and for watching!! Thanks also to our patrons and YouTube members. You make MinuteEarth possible https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth
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Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
With Writing and Narration From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

LINKS

3) What To Do When It's Really Cold Outside | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j3Gs6tyiNX4

5) Jesse's Channel - This Place | https://www.youtube.com/user/ThisPlaceChannel/

6) Arcadi's Channel - Tippe Top Physics | https://www.youtube.com/user/tippetopphysics/

7) Hot Mess | https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCsaEBhRsI6tmmz12fkSEYdw/

8) MinutePhysics | https://www.youtube.com/user/minutephysics

9) Ever's Dormant Channel - Un Punto Circular | https://www.youtube.com/UnPuntoCircular

10) Lion Guardians | http://lionguardians.org/

11) Paradigms Show | https://vrv.co/paradigms

12) MinuteLabs | http://www.minutelabs.io

14) Why Earth Has Two Levels | Hypsometric Curve | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA

15) Why It Sucks to Be a Male Hyena | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PBCNWmU5apE

16) The Deadliest Ice Age Ever | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJWIgS-1hJc

17) How We Make MinuteEarth Videos (Behind the Scenes) | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tnIZybxCW1k

18) ASAP Science | https://www.youtube.com/AsapSCIENCE/

19) Are any Animals Truly Monogamous? | https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c

20) MinuteEarth in other languages:
Spanish: https://www.youtube.com/MinutoDeLaTierra
French: https://www.youtube.com/MinutePourLaTerre
Italian: https://www.youtube.com/MinutiDellaTerra
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21) These are our favorite MinuteEarth videos:

David | Ambergris: Why Perfume Makers Love Constipated Whales
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vN1brVnlBZU

Emily | Are any Animals Truly Monogamous?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bxQdLhOQf5c

Melissa | This Is Not A Bee
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dDMBykrogXs

Alex | Climate Change: The View From MinuteEarth
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MEX2J_sAdGs

Kate | Why Do We Eat Spoiled Food?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9yswzITbAbA

Ever’s Playlist
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOv3FGVmRcA&list=PLJTyadQhEGyWJJaTkzwdsAWl1MCHNtFRR

Direct download: Why_Do_You_Make_So_Many_Poop_Videos__Other_Questions.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 1:24pm EDT

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/
Honeybees are dying from parasites, pesticides, and poor nutrition, but we can help them in a number of ways, including by encouraging them to make a homemade antibiotic.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Propolis: a kind of bee glue made up of resins and beeswax, rich in flavonoids and aromatic acids with antibiotic properties
Pollination circuit: commercial bee-keepers move their colonies around the country, renting them out to farmers to pollinate almonds, apples, and many other crops.
Bee health: term used to indicate concern about a set of issues challenging to health of honey bees, including parasites, pathogens, and pesticides.
___________________________________________


Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
Support us on Patreon: https://goo.gl/ZVgLQZ
And visit our website: https://www.minuteearth.com/

Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
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And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor
Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) with Ever Salazar
Video Narrator: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Emily Elert, David Goldenberg, and Melissa Hayes
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Spivak, M, Browning Z, Goblirsch M, Lee K, Otto C, Smart M, Wu-Smart J. 2017. Why Does Bee Health Matter? The Science Surrounding Honey Bee Health Concerns and What We Can Do About It. Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST) Commentary, QTA2017. CAST, Ames, Iowa. Pp 1-16

Borba, R. S. & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis envelope in Apis melliferacolonies supports honey bees against the pathogen, Paenibacillus larvae. Scientific Reports 7: 11429.

Klein S, Cabirol A, Devaud JM, Barron AB, Lihoreau M. (2017). Why Bees Are So Vulnerable to Environmental Stressors. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, Apr;32(4):268-278. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2016.12.009. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Simone-Finstrom, M., Borba, R. S., Wilson, M., & Spivak, M. (2017). Propolis Counteracts Some Threats to Honey Bee Health. Insects, 8(2), 46. http://doi.org/10.3390/insects8020046

Direct download: The_Secret_Weapon_That_Could_Help_Save_Bees.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 12:00pm EDT

Watch Hot Mess here! ►► http://bit.ly/hotmess_sub

Malaria is a global disease that we've beaten back around the world, including in some tropical places, but we’ve had the hardest time in Africa.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Anthropophily: an organism’s propensity to feed on humans rather than other animals
Biogeography: the study of the distribution of species and organisms throughout space and time
Malaria Control: the reduction of malaria’s impacts to a locally acceptable level as a result of deliberate efforts. Continued intervention is required to sustain control.
Malaria Elimination: the interruption of local transmission (i.e. reducing the rate of malaria cases to zero) of a specified malaria parasite in a defined geographic area. Continued intervention is needed to prevent reestablishment of transmission.
Malaria Eradication: the permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by human malaria parasites, after which intervention measures are no longer needed (e.g. as with smallpox, the only disease we've eradicated)
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
How the US CDC grew out of the "Office of Malaria Control in War Areas": https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/history/history_cdc.html

Amazing animation of how different parts of the world become more or less suitable for malaria over the seasons: https://www.dropbox.com/s/acqlg5l8pnxjl2x/Gething%202011%20Vivax%20suitability%2013071_2011_324_MOESM4_ESM.MPEG?dl=0

Animated map of malaria's shrinking distribution: https://www.economist.com/graphic-detail/2015/10/14/the-shrinking-malaria-map
_________________________________________

Subscribe to MinuteEarth on YouTube: http://goo.gl/EpIDGd
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Say hello on Facebook: http://goo.gl/FpAvo6
And Twitter: http://goo.gl/Y1aWVC

And download our videos on itunes: https://goo.gl/sfwS6n
___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual)
Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich) & Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Carter, R., & Mendis, K. N. 2002. Evolutionary and historical aspects of the burden of malaria. Clinical microbiology reviews, 15(4), 564-594. https://cmr.asm.org/content/cmr/15/4/564.full.pdf

Gething, P. W., et al. 2011. Modelling the global constraints of temperature on transmission of Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Parasites & vectors, 4(1), 92. https://doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-92

Hay, S. I., et al. 2004. The global distribution and population at risk of malaria: past, present, and future. The Lancet infectious diseases, 4(6), 327-336. https://dx.doi.org/10.1016%2FS1473-3099(04)01043-6

Lardeux, F. et al. 2007. Host choice and human blood index of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis in a village of the Andean valleys of Bolivia. Malaria journal, 6(1), 8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-6-8

United States CDC. 2018. Malaria: Biology. https://www.cdc.gov/malaria/about/biology/index.html

World Health Organization. 2016. World malaria report 2015. http://www.who.int/malaria/publications/world-malaria-report-2015/report/en/

World Health Organization. 2016. Eliminating malaria. Geneva. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/205565/WHO_HTM_GMP_2016.3_eng.pdf

Direct download: Why_Malaria_Isnt_Just_a_Tropical_Disease.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 11:02am EDT

Learn more about quokkas over on Animalogic: https://bit.ly/2MWz9pa
Animals eat their own poop in order to gain extra access to nutrients or to microbes that help digest those nutrients.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Coprophagy: Consuming feces
Allocoprophagy: Consuming others’ feces
Autocoprophagy: Consuming one’s own feces
Fecal microbiota transplant: A treatment for C. diff that involves transplanting feces from a healthy individual into a patient.
Cecotropes: Also known as night poops, these are the soft, shiny pellets that rabbits excrete and then consume.
Pap: A special substance produced by mother koalas that their babies feed on during the transition from drinking milk to eating eucalyptus leaves.


___________________________________________


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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Masi, S., and Brueur, T. (2018). Dialiumseed coprophagy in wild western gorillas: Multiple nutritional benefits and toxicity reduction hypotheses. American Journal of Primatology. 80:4 (e22752). Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29664132

Osawa, R. Blanshard, W. and Ocallaghan, P. (1993). Microbiological Studies of the Intestinal Microflora of the Koala, Phascolarctos-Cinereus .2. Pap, a Special Maternal Feces Consumed by Juvenile Koalas. Australian Journal of Zoology. 41(6): 611-620. Retrieved from: http://www.publish.csiro.au/ZO/ZO9930611.

Mack, A., and Druliner, G. (2003). A Non-Intrusive Method for Measuring Movements and Seed Dispersal in Cassowaries. Journal of Field Ornithology. 74:2 (193-196). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/4131128

Eckman, L. (2018). Personal communication. Professor of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, UCSD.

Suen, G. (2018). Personal communication. Assistant professor, Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Brogan, J. (2016). Everyone Poops. Some Animals Eat It. Why?. Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved from: https://www.smithsonianmag.com/science-nature/everyone-poops-some-animals-eat-it-why-180961020/

Direct download: Why_Do_Some_Animals_Eat_Poop.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 3:09pm EDT

Try Dashlane here: http://bit.ly/minutedash. Plus, here’s a 10% off promo code for Dashlane Premium: minuteearth

When nutrients from the ocean depths reach the sunlit surface (like in the Galapagos), life is more productive.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube members.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Net Primary Production (NPP): the amount of primary production that organisms do, minus the amount of carbon they use up to do so (by respiring)

Phytoplankton: microscopic green algae that live in water and get energy through photosynthesis. Learn more here: https://oceanservice.noaa.gov/facts/phyto.html

Primary Production: the synthesis of organic chemicals from carbon dioxide (mostly happens through photosynthesis)

Upwelling: the motion of cooler, usually nutrient-rich, water towards the ocean surface
___________________________________________


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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia
Video Director: Alex Reich & Emily Elert
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

 

___________________________________________

References:

Ainley, David. Personal Communication, 2018.

Baker, A. J., et al. 2006. Multiple gene evidence for expansion of extant penguins out of Antarctica due to global cooling. Proc of Royal Soc B: Biol Sci, 273 (1582), 11-17. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560011/

Behrenfeld, M. J., et al. 2006. Climate-driven trends in contemporary ocean productivity. Nature, 444(7120), 752. https://www.nature.com/articles/nature05317

Boersma, Dee. Personal Communication, 2018.

Boyd, P.W., et al. 2014. Cross-chapter box on net primary production in the ocean. In: Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part A: Global and Sectoral Aspects. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC [Field, C.B., et al (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK & New York, NY, USA, pp. 133-136.

Dybdahl, Mark. Personal Communication, 2018.

Falkowski, P. G., et al. 1998. Biogeochemical controls and feedbacks on ocean primary production. Science, 281(5374), 200-206. https://goo.gl/1P7b69

Field, C. B., et al. 1998. Primary production of the biosphere: integrating terrestrial and oceanic components. Science, 281(5374), 237-240. https://cloudfront.escholarship.org/dist/prd/content/qt9gm7074q/qt9gm7074q.pdf

Karnauskas, K. B., et al. 2017. Paleoceanography of the eastern equatorial Pacific over the past 4 million years and the geologic origins of modern Galapagos upwelling. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, 460, 22-28. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.005

LaRue, Michelle. Personal Communication, 2018.

Kallmeyer, Jens. Personal Communication, 2018.

Pockalny, Robert. Personal Communication, 2018.

Sigman, D. M. & Hain, M. P. 2012. The Biological Productivity of the Ocean. Nature Education Knowledge 3(10):21. https://www.nature.com/scitable/knowledge/library/the-biological-productivity-of-the-ocean-70631104

Stock, Charlie. Personal Communication, 2018.


Galapagos penguin diet https://neotropical.birds.cornell.edu/Species-Account/nb/species/galpen1/foodhabits

Penguin diet https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix

Cromwell Current & Galapagos: http://www.iflscience.com/environment/new-study-may-reveal-how-galapagos-islands-became-so-biodiverse/

Penguin distribution: https://seaworld.org/en/animal-info/animal-infobooks/penguin/appendix , http://www.penguins.cl/penguins-region.htm

Ocean productivity: https://ci.coastal.edu/~sgilman/770productivitynutrients.htm

Direct download: Why_Are_There_Penguins_At_The_Equator.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:11pm EDT

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Earth’s outer shell is made of two materials whose different densities and thicknesses give rise to two distinct “levels” on the planet’s surface.

Watch our new show Paradigms (U.S. servers only!): https://www.vrv.co/paradigms

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Hypsometric Curve: Basically, a chart that shows the proportions of surface area at every elevation on a planet.
Crust: Earth's outermost layer, made out of two distinct materials – oceanic crust (which is denser) and continental crust (which is less dense).
Lithosphere: The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and the hard, un-bending part of the upper mantle.
Subduction: The process of an ocean plate crashing into another plate and getting forced to dive down into Earth's mantle.
Isostasy: Describes the way earth's crust sort of floats in the underlying mantle. Continental crust is less dense and thicker, and floats higher than the oceanic crust, which is denser and thinner. Geologists talk about things like "isostatic rebound," which is what happens after an ice age, when the ice melts off a continent and the continent lifts up, like a floating raft in a pool after someone gets off (though continents rise more slowly).
___________________________________________


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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Albarede, F. (2009) Volatile accretion history of the terrestrial planets and dynamic implications. Nature, Vol 461.

Calogero, Meredith. Personal Communication, 2018.

Eakins, B.W. and G.F. Sharman. Hypsographic Curve of Earth's Surface from ETOPO1, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, Boulder, CO, 2012
from: https://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/etopo1_surface_histogram.html

Hawkesworth, C. J. & Kemp, A. I. S. (2006) Evolution of the continental crust. Nature, Vol 443.

Rosenblatt, P.C , & Thouvenot, P.E. (1994). Comparative hypsometric analysis of Earth and Venus. Geophysics Research Letters, Vol 21, pp 465-468.

Stern, R.J., Gerya, T, & Tackley, P.J. (2018) Stagnant lid tectonics: Perspectives from silicate planets, dwarf planets, large moons, and large asteroids. Geoscience Frontiers, 9.

Direct download: Why_Earth_Has_Two_Levels.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:42am EDT

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As we try to figure out the evolutionary trees for languages and species, we sometimes get led astray by similar but unrelated words and traits.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Cladistics: A method of recreating evolutionary trees based on evidence about relationships.
Etymology: The study of the origin of words and how they have changed throughout history.
Convergent Evolution: A process whereby different species evolve similar traits in order to adapt to similar environments.
Polyphyly: A group containing members with multiple ancestral sources.
Homoplasy: A trait shared by a group of species that is not shared in their common ancestor.
False Cognates: Pairs of words with similar sounds and meanings but unrelated etymologies.
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
A photographer who has taken amazing photos of unrelated people who look alike: http://mentalfloss.com/article/53774/photos-unrelated-people-who-look-exactly-alike
_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor
Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert
Video Narrator: Emily Elert
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

Image Credits:

Lappet-faced Vulture (Old World) - Steve Garvie
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Torgos_tracheliotos_-Masai_Mara_National_Reserve,_Kenya-8.jpg

Turkey vulture (New World) - Flickr User minicooper93402
https://www.flickr.com/photos/minicooper93402/5440526260

Crested Porcupine (Old World) - Flickr user 57777529@N02
https://www.flickr.com/photos/57777529@N02/5398915634

North American Porcupine (New World) - iStock.com/GlobalP
https://www.istockphoto.com/photo/north-american-porcupine-or-canadian-porcupine-or-common-porcupine-walking-gm515605852-88578399

Chinchilla lanigera - Nicolas Guérin
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chinchilla_lanigera_(Wroclaw_zoo)-2.JPG

Naked Mole Rat - Roman Klementschitz
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Nacktmull.jpg

Ganges river dolphin - Zahangir Alom, NOAA (Public Domain)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Platanista_gangetica_noaa.jpg

Atlantic Spotted Dolphin - Flickr user 53344659@N05
https://www.flickr.com/photos/53344659@N05/4978423771/

Orcinus orcas - Robert Pittman, NOAA (Public Domain)
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Killerwhales_jumping.jpg

Euphorbia obesa - Frank Vincentz
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:E_obesa_symmetrica_ies.jpg

Astrophytum asterias - David Midgley
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Astrophytum_asterias1.jpg

Sweet William Dwarf - Nicholas M. Bashour
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Spring_Flowers.JPG
___________________________________________

References:

Atkinson, Q. and Gray, R. (2005). Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). Curious Parallels and Curious Connections — Phylogenetic Thinking in Biology and Historical Linguistics. Systematic Biology. 54:5 (513-526). Retrieved from: https://academic.oup.com/sysbio/article/54/4/513/2842862

Atkinson, Quentin. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Evolution and Human Behavior at the University of Auckland.

Bennu, D. (2004). The Evolution of Birds: An Overview of the Avian Tree of Life. Lab Animal. 33 (42-28)). Retrieved from: https://www.nature.com/articles/laban0504-42

De La Fuente, J.(2010). Urban legends: Turkish kayık ‘boat’ and “Eskimo” qayaq ‘kayak’. Studia Linguistica. 127 (7-24). Retrieved from: http://www.ejournals.eu/Studia-Linguistica/2010/2010/art/180/

Direct download: The_Similarity_Trap.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 8:50am EDT

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Thanks to humans, old school apex predators are struggling to hold onto their perch at the top of the food chain. And now a new class of adaptable mesopredators are remaking the ecosystems they take over.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Food Web: The feeding relationships between animals that determine how energy and nutrients are spread throughout an ecosystem.
Trophic Level: A hierarchical level in an ecosystem made up of organisms that share the same function in the food web.
Apex predator: The animals at the top trophic level that feed on animals and organisms below them.
Mesopredator: A member of a mid-ranking trophic level that preys on animals and organisms in lower trophic levels and occasionally gets eat by apex predators.
Mesopredator Release: An ecological phenomenon in which mesopredators rapidly grow in population once apex predators are removed from an ecosystem.
Trophic Cascade: A series of dramatic changes in an ecosystem often triggered by mesopredator release.
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
ScienceWithTom goes deep on the science in this video with ecologist Alex McInturff: https://youtu.be/TJcgtqjj-yo
_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits:
Script Writer: Tom McFadden
Script Editor: David Goldenberg
Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen
Video Director: David Goldenberg, Emily Elert
Video Narrator: Emily Elert, Tom McFadden
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Emily Elert, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Darimont, C., Fox, C., Bryan, H., and Reimchen, C. (2015). The Unique Ecology of Human Predators. Science. 349: 6250 (858-860). Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content...

Prugh, L., Stoner, C., Epps, C., Bean, W., Ripple, W., Laliberte, A. and Brashares, J. (2009). The Rise of the Mesopredator. BioScience. 59:9 (779-791). Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.1525/...

Baum, J. and Worm, B. (2009). Cascading Top-down Effects of Changing Oceanic Predator Abundances (2009). Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 699-714. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1...

McInturff, Alex. (2018). Personal Communication. Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management at University of California, Berkeley.

Direct download: Rise_Of_The_Mesopredator_ft._ScienceWithTom.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 9:36am EDT

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The human lifespan might be limited, in part, because natural selection just stops working late in life.

Thanks to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors for helping to make this video possible.

___________________________________________

Video Keywords:
Mortality plateau: the leveling out of the mortality rate that is observed at late ages in various species
___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Script Editor: Alex Reich and David Goldenberg
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia Rius
Video Director: David Goldenberg and Emily Elert
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

De Grey, A (Sept 2016, personal communication)

Horiuchi S, Wilmoth JR (1998) Deceleration in the Age Pattern of Mortality at Older Ages. Demography 35: 4. https://link.springer.com/article/10....

Mueller, LD, Rose MR (1996) Evolutionary theory predicts late-life mortality plateaus. PNAS 26:15249-15253. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.93.26.15249

Rose MR, Rauser CL, Mueller LD, Benford G. (2006) A revolution for aging research. Biogerontology 7:269-77. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1...

Rose, MR, Flatt, T, Graves, JL, Greer, L, Martinez, DE, Matos, MM, Mueller, LD, Shmookler Reis, RJ, and P. Shahrestani. 2012. What is aging? Frontiers in Genetics 3:134. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/...

Rose, M. (Sept 2016, personal communication)

Direct download: How_Long_Can_We_Live.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:15pm EDT

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Every once in a while, all the oaks or spruces or other plants in a region suddenly produce a tremendous bounty of seeds – up to 100 times more than usual. But why do they do it, and how do they all manage to sync up?
___________________________________________

To learn more about mast seeding, start your googling with these keywords:

Mast Year: A year in which all the plants of a particular species in a region ramp up their seed production.

Predator Satiation Hypothesis: The hypothesis that mast seeding is a strategy plants use for controlling the population of squirrels and other seed-eating animals.
___________________________________________


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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Director: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder
___________________________________________

References:

Fletcher, Quinn E., Stan Boutin, Jeffrey E. Lane, Jalene M. LaMontagne, Andrew G. McAdam, Charles J. Krebs, and Murray M. Humphries. 2010. “The Functional Response of a Hoarding Seed Predator to Mast Seeding.” Ecology 91 (9): 2673–83.

Kelly, Dave, and Victoria L. Sork. 2002. “Mast Seeding in Perennial Plants: Why, How, Where?” Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33 (1). Annual Reviews: 427–47.

Kelly, D. 1994. “The Evolutionary Ecology of Mast Seeding.” Trends in Ecology & Evolution 9 (12): 465–70.

LaMontagne, J. 2018. Personal Communication.

Direct download: When_Trees_Go_Nuts.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 5:02pm EDT

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Humans from different cultures anthropomorphize different animals to represent the same human traits.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Sunshower: A meteorological phenomenon in which the sunshines while rain is falling.
Idiom: A group of words whose meaning is not readily understandable by defining the individual words.
Anthropomorphism: The attribution of human characteristics to an animal or god or object.
Linguistic Anthropology: A field of study into how language shapes communication around the world.
___________________________________________

If you’re an American, this New York Times dialect quiz can predict your hometown based on the particular words you use: https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/upshot/dialect-quiz-map.html
_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Ever Salazar (@eversalazar)
Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Blust, R. (1999). The Fox’s Wedding. Anthropos. 94: 487-499. Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/40465016.
Perkovic, A. and Rata, G. (2008). On The Romanian Equivalency Of Animal Idioms In English. Journal of Linguistic Studies. 1: 65-71. Retrieved from: http://docplayer.net/amp/64640306-Journal-of-linguistic-studies.html

Tiechuan, M. (2015). Cause Analysis of Different Culture Image in English and Chinese Animal Idiom. Asian Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. 3: 10-19. Retrieved from: https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/f582/3a67a9d085c57417d069ef4bda0df7dd4b4c.pdf

Shi, T. (2015). A Comparison of Animal Words in English and Chinese Culture. Presented at the 5th International Conference on Education, Management, Information and Medicine. Retrieved from: https://wenku.baidu.com/view/95eb244105087632311212ee.html

Direct download: ME_150_for_itunes.m4v
Category:general -- posted at: 8:51am EDT

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Special thanks to Honey for sponsoring this episode.

Female mammals make milk, a cocktail of filtered blood, to provide their babies with vital nutrients.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Mammal: Endothermic vertebrates that nurse their young.
Lactation: The secretion of milk by the mammary glands.
Mammary Gland: A cluster of alveoli and ducts that secretes milk.
Mammary Alveoli: The tiny sacs that are the site of milk production and storage in the mammary gland.
Oxytocin: A hormone released by the pituitary gland that - among other things - causes the milk ejection reflex during nursing.
Holstein: A large black and white cow known for the large quantities of milk it yields.
___________________________________________


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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Illustrator: Qingyang Chen (@QCVisual)
Video Director: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Skibiel, A., Downing, L., Orr, T., and Hood, W. (2013).The Evolution Of The Nutrient Composition Of Mammalian Milks. Journal of Animal Ecology. 82 (6): 1254-1264. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23895187

Sharp, J., Wanyonyi, S., Modepalli, V., Watt, A., Kuruppath, S., Hinds, L., Kumar, A., Abud, H., Lefevre, C., and Nicholas, K. (2017). The Tammar Wallaby: A Marsupial Model To Examine The Timed Delivery And Role Of Bioactives In Milk. General and Comparative Endocrinology. 244: 164-177. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27528357

Tsuruta, S., Misztal, I., and Lawlor, T. (2004). Genetic Correlations Among Production, Body Size, Udder,and Productive Life Traits Over Time in Holsteins. Journal of Dairy Science. 87(5):1457-1468. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15290995

Nicholas, K. (1988). Asynchronous Dual Lactation In A Marsupial, The Tammar Wallaby. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 154 (2): 529-536. Retrieved from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2456758

Direct download: ME_149_-_d6_for_itunes.m4v
Category:general -- posted at: 1:18pm EDT

The same chemistry that makes plastic tough, light and flexible also makes it nearly impossible to get rid of, because it’s hard to break those resilient chemical bonds.

Thanks to the University of Minnesota for sponsoring this video! http://twin-cities.umn.edu/

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Polymer: A substance whose molecular structure consists of large numbers of similar units covalently bonded together
Covalent bond: A strong type of bond in which adjacent atoms share electrons.
Backbone chain: A long series of covalently bonded atoms that create the continuous chain of the molecule.
Bioplastic: A type of plastic, usually biodegradable, made from biological substances.
Scission: The breakage of a backbone chain at the bond level.
Microbial biodegradation: The use of microbes to break molecules into smaller and less harmful forms.
___________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg)
Script Editor: Kate Yoshida (@KateYoshida)
Video Illustrator: Arcadi Garcia
Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Alex Reich, Ever Salazar, Peter Reich
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder

___________________________________________

Image Credits:

Disposable plastic cup - Wikimedia user Lionel Allorge
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...

Sandbox and Beach Toys - The Children's Museum of Indianapolis
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...

PET plastic - Montgomery County Division of Solid Waste Services
https://flic.kr/p/cnfKKw

LEGO Tank - Flickr user MaxFragg
https://flic.kr/p/gDR7iV

PVC Pipe - Pam Broviak
https://flic.kr/p/4sy8kb

IKEA Watering cans - Sonny Abesamis
https://flic.kr/p/pcXrpj

LEGO Figure - Marco Verch
https://flic.kr/p/DseDts

Wetsuit - Clemens Pfeiffer
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Fi...

White PVC Pipes - Teresa Trimm
https://www.flickr.com/photos/ttrimm/...

STS-120 Shuttle Mission Imagery - NASA
https://spaceflight.nasa.gov/gallery/...

Providing clean water - UK Department for International Development
https://flic.kr/p/a4UESo

___________________________________________

References:

Albertsson, A. and Hakkarainen, M. (2017). Designed To Degrade. Science. 358 (6365). 872-873. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content...

De Hoe, G., Zumstein, M., Tiegs, B., Brutman, J., McNeill, K., Sander, M., Coates, G., and Hillmyer, M. (2018). Sustainable Polyester Elastomers from Lactones: Synthesis,Properties, and Enzymatic Hydrolyzability. Journal of the American Chemical Society. 140: 963-973. Retrieved from: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jacs...

Tokiwa, Y., Calabia, B., Ugwu, C., and Aiba, S. (2009). Biodegradability of Plastics. International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 10: 3722-3742. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/10/9/3722

Rydz, J., ,Sikorska, W., Kyulavska, M., and Christova, D. (2015). International Journal of Molecular Sciences. 16: 564-596. Retrieved from: http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/16/1/564

Hillmyer, M. (2017). The Promise of Plastics from Plants. Science. 358 (6365). 868-870. Retrieved from: http://science.sciencemag.org/content...

Hillmyer, M. (2017). Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota. Personal Communication.

Direct download: ME_148_compressed_by_VLC_for_iTunes.m4v
Category:general -- posted at: 3:16pm EDT

Go to https://brilliant.org/MinuteEarth to build your math & science skills!
Food already in cupboards, supermarkets, & warehouses could feed humanity for 4 months, but potential food - berries, termites & krill - could extend that by another year.

Thanks also to our Patreon patrons https://www.patreon.com/MinuteEarth and our YouTube sponsors.

___________________________________________

To learn more, start your googling with these keywords:
Food stock: the total amount of any particular food existing at any point in time
Strategic reserve: food intentionally kept on reserve to be sold when supplies otherwise become low
Stock to use ratio: the amount of stock of any given food at any point in time as a fraction of the total annual consumption of the commodity
___________________________________________

If you liked this week’s video, you might also like:
https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/ https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/
_________________________________________

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___________________________________________

Credits (and Twitter handles):
Script Writer: Peter Reich
Script Editor: Alex Reich (@alexhreich)
Video Illustrator: Jessika Raisor
Video Director: Emily Elert (@eelert)
Video Narrator: Emily Elert (@eelert)
With Contributions From: Henry Reich, Kate Yoshida, Ever Salazar, David Goldenberg
Music by: Nathaniel Schroeder: http://www.soundcloud.com/drschroeder


___________________________________________

References:

Atkinson, A., Siegel, V., et al. 2009. A re-appraisal of the total biomass and annual production of Antarctic krill. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. Volume 56, Issue 5, 727-740

FAO. World Food Situation http://www.fao.org/worldfoodsituation/csdb/en/


FAO. World Cassava Situation and Recent Trends http://www.fao.org/docrep/009/x4007e/X4007E04.htm

Kaspari, M., Weiser, M.D. 2012. Energy, taxonomic aggregation, and the geography
of ant abundance. Ecography 35:65-72.

National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/

National Geographic https://www.nationalgeographic.com/what-the-world-eats/

Penn State University Extension. Oil factsheet: oilseed presses. 7pp (undated).


Ritchie, H., Roser, M. 2018. "Meat and Seafood Production & Consumption". Published online at OurWorldInData.org. Retrieved from: 'https://ourworldindata.org/meat-and-seafood-production-consumption'

Sanderson, MG. 1996. Biomass of termites and their emissions of methane and carbon dioxide: A global database. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10, 543-557.


Statista https://www.statista.com/statistics/251728/weekly-number-of-us-grocery-shopping-trips-per-household/

USDA ISSN: 1554-9089, World Agricultural Supply and Demand Estimates, February 8, 2018;
https://www.usda.gov/oce/commodity/wasde/latest.pdf (latest monthly update)


Wilson, RW. et al. 2009, Contribution of Fish to the Marine Inorganic Carbon Cycle, Science 323, 359-362
https://fpaq.ca/en/federation/marketing/marketing-tools/strategic-reserve/

Direct download: ME_147-_D6.mov
Category:general -- posted at: 2:02pm EDT

WATCH PARADIGMS EPISODE 1 FOR FREE ►► http://vrv.co/paradigms (No subscription needed) ↓↓↓ And follow Paradigms on social media! ↓↓↓ Twitter: https://twitter.com/paradigmshow Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/paradigmshow/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/paradigm_show/ We teamed up with MinutePhysics and Veritasium to tell the stories of how we know what we know about the universe and our place in it. Please watch episode 1 and let us know what you think! http://vrv.co/paradigms

Direct download: Paradigms_Announcement_vrv.mp4
Category:general -- posted at: 2:25pm EDT